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Lecture 10

CLAS 365 Lecture 10: February 9 notes,

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CLAS 365
Matthew Buell

February 9 notes Notes start Pergamum, historical background Located on north western coast of Anatolia, present day mysia. This part of Anatolia, many greek cities established here, many of them become very wealthy over time, becomes hotly contested in this period due to wealth. Origins fairly obscure, doesnt go back into the dark ages like other polis, only enters historic record at end of 5 century. th Start to get details at end of 4 c. when philetaerus comes to power. born 343263. Was orginially an agent of one of alexanders successors, Lysimachus. He was the son of a Macedonian named attalus, why they are known as attalids. Was born in tios, (south coat of black sea), was someone who switched allegiances, could see which way it was going. At first, he served under antigonus the one eye, at some point around 301, he shifted to Lysimachus and was made keep of pegamums treasure. After he allies to seleucus I around 283, once he does, Pergamum becomes a vassal in the empire. Niether philataerus and successor claimed kingship before 240 BC. Even though pergamums official reich went back to philtaerus when he does this. Probably to make a story they had been ruling for longer than they had, to give legitimacy. Once he allies to seleucus I, he takes on more exalted position, because his name begins to appear on coins. Control of treasury gave him much wealth, when seleucus was killed, he began to govern Pergamum as an independent state. Used the money to promote its reach and independence. He built up the cities acropolis, found two temples, temple of Athena and one to demeter. Also extended the city walls, so becomes much larger. A major theme for attalid rulers. They alwatys recognize the importance of architecture, and the use of these things to express their policies and advertise their achievements. Would become one of the most splendid citie in this period. The family would be seen as patrons to the arts. Philetaerus seems to have won a victory over the gauls, during early years of Antiochus I reign. All this means, seems to have enjoyed much autonomy and increase his power and influence in Pergamum and beyond, got much prestige for him and his family. Our sources say he was a eunuch and adopted eumenes who would succeed him. All the later attalid rulers, every one of them will depict philataerus on their coins, pay tribute to him as the founder. Eumenes I governed as a dynast. They came to control more territory around Pergamum. He gave a proclamation to their independence, he puts garrison posts around the territory he claimed belonged to them, to protect the land from gauls. He knew they would eventually come to conflict with seleucids, so he takes measures. This confrontation vs the gauls would come to a head in 262 BC. Know eumenes was successful, but eventually eumenes disappears from sources. Have very few sources on his govern, a gap. Both had to deal with gauls. Before major migration. Gaul comes from roman word galli, greeks called them galatai. Were celtic people, homeland was central and western Europe. Start to see migrating tribes begin to invade Macedonian through thrace, then go into Greece and made it to Delphi, were defeated by macedonina king antigonus gonatas. Once this happens, the go back through thrace and look to asia minor. After awhile, they settle where what will be known as Galatia. Here, continued to use celtic language, were urbanized, lived in villages allied by a loose federation. They were raiders, often
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