February 14 notes
- Attalus I, r. 241-197 BC. Under him, Pergamum developed a strong, professional army, and that
he put this army to great effect. Defeated the gauls many times, he also engaged with Antiochus
hierax, sometimes both at same time. Because of these victories, see attalus I become the first
to take the title king. They do back date the reign to philetaerus, just propaganda. Under attalus,
pergamums fortunes expand. Pergamum and its king seen as protectors of greek culture.
- Participated in both 1 and 2 Macedonian wars, on romes side. During the 2 Macedonian nd
war, attalus defended the pireus in Athens vs Philip V. got civic honors from Athens, and he
made dedications on the acropolis. Took form of mythical figures that commemorated greek
victories over barbarians, so amazons, Persians, gauls etc.
- Think we have copies of sculptures attalus made for the acropolis.
- Pausanias said: south wall has dedications for the war of giants, amazons, Persians and gauls.
Each is two cubits, dedicated by attalus. (1 cubit is about 45 cm). there is discussion about which
attalus it could be, but based on their careers we think its attalus I. attalus was trying to connect
himself to these events, where a civilizers conquered a barbarian.
- This is usually notted as the lesser attalid group.
- These monuments would be in bronze, would have been a half to 2/3 life size. This size led to
identification of roman copies. Has been an ongoing process
- First person to connect the statues to the attalid group was heinrich brunn, he knew museums
had small versions of the themes said.
- Think it was about 20 sculptures. Given title of ten little barbarians.
Lesser attalid group
- Have similar style to larger groups. This is Hellenistic baroque in its finest form. Whether gauls,
Persians, amazons, giants, in every case they are hurt. The exaggerated form, gives a sense of
anguish and stress. At same time, the sense, the dramatic is heightened by the wounds some
suffer. The dead gaul was wounded in the chest, blood comes out, and blood pools on the
statue base. In this group, were given clothes and facial clues to those who were being depicted.
The dying gaul, we know it’s a gaul because he has matted hair and is on the oval shield. How do
we know one is an amazon?
- Were rendered in various states of consciousness. See people who fell in combat but are still
defined. Have to kneeling, Persian and gaul. Both are kneeling and fighting off the coup de gras.
The Persian tries to push off the ground while parryin blows from enemies. Facial expression
shows anguish, knitted brow, look of worry. The gaul is badly wounded in the side, ready to fight
back. even though hes on a shield, hed be holding one too.
- Others from the lesser attalid monuments, are near collapse. See a gaul about to collapse,
helmet and head turned down, wrinkle brown and facial expression show he is weak, eyes are
almost closed, his left arm keeps him up. Outside both are moustache, they have similar facial
feautres, poses, and anatomical details.
- The last state of consciousness is the deceased. Have many of these. In all cases, they lay on
their back and nothing more than pathetic corpse. Everythiung is closed, mouth slightly gaped.
- Have the defined (kneeling), those very near death, and then the dead. Wen considered
together, see concern of heighten drama. Theatrical effect must of have been striking. Polic said
walking around them was like walking around a battlefield.
- If this is a battle, what about the victors?
o Have limited information. Need to turn to our texts, have 1 reference or 1 allusion we
may use but maybe misleading. Plutarch reports antonys war with Octavian was preseced with evil omens, one is a statue of dionysys that fell down from acropolis into
theatre of dionysis. Antony presented himself as a new Dionysus. Problem with this,
Plutarch doesn’t say which gigantomachy belonged too. Have no copies from any victors
that can be attributed to the group, it is possible victors weren’t represented.
- Attalids wanted Pergamum to be successors from classical Athens, not only did they protect the
world but were patrons of the arts. Here pergameme designers use mythology, heroic past and
current history to bring Pergamum into the main picture of culture.
- Gigantomoachy pretty much started the greek world.
- The inclusions of the amazons bring greeces heroic past. Amazons sacked city of Athens.
Theseus captured the Amazonian queen and brought her to Athens. Theseus defeated them,
and his victory represented a western victory over the east.
- The inclusions of the Persians, represents the Athenian and later allied protection of the country
vs invaders. Would lead Athens to be main city in classical period.
- So all periods of the past for the greeeks are represented, the struggle between civilized and
uncivilised was as old as time itself for the greeks. Pergamemes were now just part of this
- When viewed together, they have specific types of beings in the universe. The gods, giants,
heros, and humans. Shows all them defeating an uncivilized enemy, often from the east. This
pertained to everyone, was a universal struggle. And each one of these events