February 28 notes
o Dramatic. The subject depicted is usually something at the moment of peak crisis.
o Exaggerated anatomy to heighten the tension/drama. Its serious, and usually more than
one subject, so dealing with sculptural groups. Restless, undulating surfaces being
promoted. Agonized, facial expressions.
o See bodies twisting, and in action.
- When do we see its first appearance? In Pergamum, the greater attalid monument, good
- Some say the style begins as early as 4 c. BC. The same people look to the temple of Asclepius,
- Style of dress often obscures anatomy.
- Some scholars look to Lysippus, some say its during his career that characteristics of baroque
appear. Developed for portraits of alexander.
- All this kind of contributes to the sense of pathos.
- The mature baroque style, we think of Pergamum. The great attalid group, which date to 230-
220 BC. The relief work on the great altar of zeus is a good example. The east frieze.
- Really what were dealing with is 225-150 BC. Really the peak period of baroque. Then have
outliers, starting late 4 c. BC and early 1 c. AD. (brief revival of baroque)
- Early example
o The funeral monuments at tarentum, take the form of naiskos/naiskoi. It’s a tomb that
take the form of a small temple, tend to include a Tarentum, metopes, limestone. Dated
to about 325-250 BC. Varied subject matter from here, had stories of Persephone,
scenes pertaining to mythological and historical battles and scenes from every day life
(hunting, sports, religious or funerary processions).
o Looking at a barbarian chief, demeter and Persephone, and a battle scene. The
barbarian identified by the garb and attributes. For the battle scene: nude warrior
standing over the body of his comrade killed by a mounted warrior.
o Whats baroque about the metopes?
▪ Barbarian: deep carving (get exaggerated features), looks like hes frowning a bit,
not happy. See twisting in position, clothing is anti-anatomical
▪ Battle scene: the point of maximum crisis.
o All into consideration, can be seen that somewhat humble limestone metopes really do
anticipate what will come to be the mature baroque style.
o Another early example
▪ Athens, grave relief, early 3 c. BC
▪ Contemporary with Tarentum metopes.
▪ Have a groom trying to restrain his horse. Horse looks nervous, apprehensive.
Head is slightly raised, nostrils flare, mouth open. The musculature is
exaggerated, see bulging veins. All rendered as a means to produce drama.
▪ The groom is trying to restrain the horse, groom looks a bit nervous. The horse
would probably also be much bigger. Anatomy obscured by clothes.
- The style has been evolving over time so the pergamums merely adapted and perfected the
- The strange thing of this, when we reach the mature period, we have very few sculptures that
come from outside of Pergamum. We believe sculptors from Rhodes were working in this
mature baroque style. Nike of Samothrace
- Can assume they disseminate the style (rhodians), the best example may be a rhodian work but
- One of most famous greek sculptures
- Discovered in 1863 by an Austrian team working at the temple. Now housed in the louvre.
- Have a depicting of nike descending on a base. The base take the form of a ships prow, as if her
wings still beating, drapery still fluttering, about to touch down. Just about the crown the ships
crew and commander as victors.
- Statues of nike descending is not new, have nike paeonius from Olympia erected in 420 BC. Was
a victory monument for messenians over Sparta. So by now, the image is a well known one, an
accepted monument to victory.
- Was erected in perhaps most dramatic sites or piece of sculpture. The temple became very
popular. (sanctuary of the great gods, Samothrace. ) ptolemies and antigonids connected to
- Stood between an open fronted building, just at the top of the theatre of the sanctuary. It
looked out to the entirety of the sanctuary, it was in plain view also.
- Believed in this building, the nike of Samothrace was placed in a rock surrounded basin filled
with water. The basin is the sea, the rocks shorelines or the harbour. So highly dramatic.
- The reflection of the water would have had an effect. Would help heighten the sense of drama.
- It is 3.28 meters high. Majority of the statue was carved out of one piece of parian marble, a
number of subsidiary blocks used for the bust, head, wings etc.
- Shes massive, muscular, powerful. With the huge meticulous wings, she strides energetically
forward. Her torso is twisted, hips twist in another, and ,makes a bold contorted effect.
- The full curves of her body is visible through the chiton, anatomy isn’t obscure. It molds her
body as she moved forward.
- All of these could only be created in the period that produced baroque.
- Controversy, is celebrating naval victory, but which of the 1000s of naval victories are we talking
about? We don’t know. some scholars argued it was dedicated by antogonus gonatas, because
of his victory of the ptolemies, dated to 250.
- Another hypothesis: tries to get the rhodian sculptor, the rhodian ship and matieral from
Rhodes. It commemorated the victory of the roman fleet assisted by Rhodes over Antiochus III
in 190 BC.
- But we really don’t know why it was made and for what.
- The threatical setting, the prominence of the site, the thought of the effect on viewers, the mini
sea setting, and the large desire to use landscape to enhance the sculpture is typical for planning
when working in the baroque style.
Farnese bull group
- Maybe rhodian. This com