March 21 notes
- Clear that architects of Hellenistic period, perpetuated, refined, and combined classical greek
architecture. When we do see innovation, roots often in previous period.
- Three key trends
o Concern for theatricality in planning and design. (Pergamum, buildings placed high and
in relation to each other) reason is, the political message is readily accessible to all.
o Didactic tendency in the planning proportions of the buildings. See rules and canons of
perfection out to be establish and distributed. So both teachers and students know
what is good, bad, desirable, undesirable. Reflection of scholarly mentality of the age.
o Expanded use of Corinthian order. Sometimes used as a means of expressing many
religious and political ideas.
- The Parthenon dominated the acropolis, and still seen from most parts of the city.
- Temple of Poseidon in sounion, erected on promontory land out towards the sea.
- The spot of Parthenon was considered holly. Placement was on religious considerations.
Sounion was a long established holy site.
- The messages of propaganda, for power, authority, cultural superiority. The sanctuary of
classical times based off this.
- The Hellenistic period, see desire to elaborate architecture of sacred sites, often with override
prerogative, to give some thrill to those who visit.
- Evidence shows various structural entities. Like terraces, colonnades, ramps, gateways, to
heighten levels of drama. Employed to structure some dramatic vista.
Religious architecture, Rhodes rd
- For a short time, was a major player in Hellenistic period. independent, chief naval power in 3
c. active vs pirates. Often called upon to settle disputes by merchants for taxes and tolls on
ships. So it was recognized by other states as a legit power. reach peak in 230s-220s bc, now
made treaties with other island, like Cyclades. Came do lead the league of islanders, or nesiotic
- Unfortunately this power was short lived. Starts losing independence after 3 Macedonian war.
Rhodes was always neutral, but Rhodes was punished by trying to intervene to end the war. It
gave delos to Athens. In 164, forced to be permanent ally of rome, more or less a vassal now.
- Sanctuary of Athena, lindos.
o On acropolis. Often called Athena lindia. Acropolis is dramatic, and goes out into sea.
o Excavated in early 20 c. by danes. Could date to 1th or 9 c. BC restored in 6 c. BC.
o Now temple is constructed on highest point of acropolis. We know an archaic temple
was here until destroyed by fire in 392. New doric one built around 330, copy of older
o Small temple, 21.64 x 7.75 meters. Amphiprostyle (porticos on both ends, no columns
on side). Tetrastyle.
o Like most doric temples, had a pronaos, a naos (cella) and opisthodomos.
o The naos, still has cuttings in the floor showing a table of offering was there, and
cuttings for the base of the cult statue.
o It had little decoration outside of doric entablature. Its doric, but small and not very
o Think propylaea was added to monumentalize the approach. Dated by 330. Approach by
a broad stair way measuring 21 meters. It limits the sacred area, frames the space. Only
foundation is left today. It formed a portico or stoa, a wide pie. On the façade, had 10 columns, the two legs of the pie ended in pro-style buildings.(have 6 columns on front
▪ On western side, the pro-style building has 3 rooms. Think they were areas for
o The wall behind the propylaea had 5 doors for access to the same spot.
o The first terrace, have a stoa in the shape of a pie. Was about 87 meters. Made around
2 century bc, around when Rhodes was flourishing.
▪ Was made on a massive wall, like the temple made in doric style. characterized
by (stoas are sheds with solid back wall) not here. Don’t have the back wall, just
columns. Provides a view of whats to come. Also to display votive offerings.
▪ An area of display. Whats the purpose of the stoa, was to enhance the dramatic
setting, because it screened off the temple from immediate view.
▪ The stoa and propylaea help heighten the tension.
o Lindos was easy to manipulate the topography. But what happens when an area doesn’t
- Sanctuary of Asclepius, kos.
o During this period, his cult becomes prominent. These cults, thought 5 and 4 c. BC a
number of cults connected to healing become popular. See prominence of healing cults,
a reaction to the pelop war.
o Ascelpius most prevalent hero connected to healing. Spreads in 4 -3 c. originates in
pelops, esp. Epidaurus. The spreading of it reflects the period. during this time, see
constant war. Also see obsession with the individual.
o Visitors would travel to these places to learn how to cure illness, call incubation. Most
cults to Asclepius and most gods, had purification by bathing, then they making
offerings in cakes of bloodless sacrifices, and the visitor spends the night in the
sanctuary. While sleeping, thought the good came and gave the cure. Result of this,
most sanctuaries for healing had a room for sleeping, called an abaton, which literally
means a place that should not be entered. Once healed, the person would majke a
proclamation (inscription) in the sanctuary as advertisement.
o Sanctuary was found in late 4 c. kos had long bee