April 6 notes
- The pydna monument, 168/167. Another name is amaelius Paulus, he defeated perseus at
pydna in 168, end of third Macedonian war. This is the battle that broke the back of Macedonian
power. it marked the end of Macedonian independence. Perseus would later be arrested at
sanctuary of great gods, then paraded in a triumph, die in prison. Then he takes on name
o It marked history, but also made history. The pydna monument was erected ins
sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, served as most public of all venues to advertise
achievements, any of them.
o Was put in the most high profile place. In the site, same thing, put it up right infront of
the temple of Apollo. It’s a 10m high pillar made from pentellic marble. Has relief frieze,
surmounted by a bronze and gilt equestrian statues of Paullus. Don’t see much of this at
this point in rome, so they do it in Greece for glory of themselves.
o Plutarch, livy and Polybius write on it. seemed to have found an unfinished monument
for perseus, so it seems perseus had begun constructing and monument expecting the
win at pynda. Paulus just appriopriated it and made changes.
o Frieze: the decisive battle, different scenes of fighting. Macedonians vs romans. At the
center is a riderless horse, shown galloping into the distance, to refer to a decisive
event. Literary accounts say there was a stalemate before the battle, prophecy said who
ever charges first loses the war. So both sides waited until a riderless horse broke
through Macedonian lines making them attacking. This could suggest a clever tactic,
seems they manipulated the prophecy, could undermine the moral and confidence of
o The remaking of the enemies monument served to sow the dominance of rome.
o The plint says in latin: says paullus captured it from king perseus. Putting this in Delphi,
no one mistakes that rome is in charge,
o Building designed to hold a dedicatory ship. Called the monument des taureax (
decoration that sticks out, null protomes.) called neorion (something ship)
o Neorion: 69.4 x 10.37m. one of the more imposing buildings at the sanctuary.
o Consists of a doric hexstyle porch that led into a long gallery. Surrounded by long
walkway, decorated with marine sculpture. The center of the gallery is accupied by long
and shallow marble basin, 45.65 x 4.48m, ship would be placed in it. it served as an
expesive sea surface.
o The north end, large triangular bases supported one part of the ship. It had two stories.
Motifs, and the size indicates it held a massive ship, Piraeus shipsheds were 35m long.
o Some say antigonus gonanatas dedicated his flag ship after the battle of kos. Sources
say that this battle, he employed his flagship called the isthmia, same sources say who
later dedicated it to Apollo.
o Most think it actually did house the isthmia. Some say based on style, maybe dedicated
earlier by poliorcetes after winning at salamis in 306 BC. Starts calling himself king after
this. If it is, maybe it was left unfinished and taken up by gonatas.
- Neorion at Samothrace
o Only recently discovered. A building set in eastern terrace of the site. Made of local sand
stone and covered in plaster. Ground plan different than delos.
o The architect here drew inspiration from the stoa. Stoas had long been used for displays
of naval spoils in form of equipment not ships. So we are looking at rectangular hall, divided by a row of 5 doric columns. Columns connected by wooden grill, set on marble
rails. Visitors entered northern chamber, through two monumental doors with w=full
o Found the rests the ship was set on. It occupied the full length of the southern section of
the building. The orientation and position of grill and columns restricted view of ship to
one side. Only seen through windows and door of the north and viewing gallery.
o The dimensions of the chamber let a ship in 27m in length, 4 meters in width. Shorter
than delos or Piraeus.
o So we don’t know the type of ship put here. If it was military, would be a lighter class of
ship. Offering a ship to gods was a large act, suggests a strong and powerful patron.
Hard to know. when we think of Samothrace, have 1 or 2 choices, either Macedonians
o Its dated to first halfof 3 century, and was under antigonids. So associated with
gonatas. Suggested it had a Ptolemaic ship of lighter class that was captured by the king.
- Naval monument, cyrene
o Stood right in cities agora. We see the prow of the ship, bearing a peplos wearing
female. Was situated on a podium, rectangular base.
o Similar to nike of Samothrace. This was standard for naval victory monuments
o The statue is wearing a peplos, has a himation wrapped over the shoulder, frontal pose,
hair suggests she had a neck guard. No evidence for wings, clear were not dealing with a
nike. Most believe she is the nymph cyrene, deity to cyrene. The rostrum is unusual, we
have a proembolion, rams don’t usually survive, but both of them have a 3 pronges
wedges shape, like a trident, also recalls thunderbolt that take s a 3 part form. The ram,
the naval weapon, designed to emulate the two most fearful weapons the gods could
have. This sent the message that in a sense they defeated the weapons, harnessed the
power and use it. the lower ram also had relief work, see a trident, on the upper ram,
we have a relief of a wing, snake leg thing. Podium has dolphin mouldings, and the base
is meant to imitate a port.
o Dates and patron is circumstantial. The dimension of the base and ship relate to 3