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Lecture 2

GEOG 333 Lecture 2: CHAPTER 2 History of Urban Transport.docx

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GEOG 333
Craig Townsend

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CHAPTER 2 History of Urban Transport From Walking to Railways • Over time the creation of new transport modes has increased as well as the infrastructures in cities. • The shift from the original walking cities was slowly occurring. o In the walking cities/pedestrian cities, there wasn’t much space for mobility as in them everything was very concentrated (about 3-4km in diameter). o The rural-urban boundary was well defined, as a matter of fact the center was very crowded and just a couple of km away the separation was precise, as there wasn’t almost anything (mainly farmland) o Everything was built according to the activity center of the city. For example in Quebec City the walking part was built when the only mode of transport was walking and/or horse carriage. • In Cities with not much space available, the actual street place was limited. o Very often homes and workplaces co-located. For example there would be the office of a lawyer in the front and his house and family in the back of the building. o Streets are used as market space and social place. o Spaces between buildings are like rooms, there is a sense of enclosure. Especially for example in older European cities, “la cour” was a protected space. • A terminating vista is when you look at the end of the street and see a building. II. Origins of Public Transit th • The 19 Century was a period of rapid change. The first public transportation occurred in the 1850’s-1860’s. • Before public transit, “not” walking to places was a luxury reserved for royalty. • The first public transit occurred in Nantes in the 1820’s when anyone was allowed to ride in the carriage called omnibus. Later, several more were designed all around the world and were basically carriages with benches installed in them. • Walker defines transit as: “Public transit consists to carry multiple passengers with the capacity to carry multiple passengers whose trips may have different origins, destinations and purposes.” • It usually requires a payment (“fare”). • The Right of Way (ROW) of a public transit had to be either exclusive. III. Railways and Urban Transport • Big changes occurred when external sources of power “replaced” horses and the omnibus. • When the Industrial Revolution occurred, with the invention of the steam engine (in 1804), it was the birth of early railway technology. At first, only being used for industrial purposes it then gained access to a larger public and the first steal railways were built between cities. o Montreal’s Railway growth occurred between 1890-1930. IV. From Omnibus to Railway • However as omnibuses shared a right of way the streets were very crowded, so all vehicles moved at slow speed. The rides would often be crowded, uncomfortable and the fares were high, therefore it took a certain time before it was truly considered mass transit. • They reached that title when railways were installed allowing omnibuses to become more comfortable, therefore smoother. • Another set of inventions allowed for the creation of mass transit (such as the railways with external power source). • With the second industrial revolution came the use of electricity as a source to move a train rather than the use of steam. With the electric street railway the train didn’t have to transport its energy source as it was external. • Three categories of railway
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