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HIST 325
Shannon Mc Sheffrey

HIST 201: H-420 9/6/2012 10:19:00 AM - Start with the fall of the Roman Empire - Covering about 1800 years or so in this class - Pocket guide is for the conference - Downloadable book to download from moodle for the conference - she will put up the powerpoint slide to study  it is not a substitute for going to class - there is a separate moodle page for the workshop - Grading scheme  - 30% of writing short pages + participation (workshop)  - 30% Midterm (either all midterm or 20% essay, if you do worse on the essay than you do on the midterm, then she will count just the midterm) We can see our midterm mark first ( so if you do well, or not well you can do the essay accordingly)  - 40% final o – the exams are essay exams, no multiple choice o – we will know what the questions will be about (need to be here to know what is going on) she will question about what we did in this class (not all European history) WORKSHOP:  Develop skills that are associated with the study of history  If we have questions about the workshop: ask TA first, then ask prof norman ingram LECTURE: Europe – from the ancient world to the middle ages - Europe in the world  it doesn’t really have distinct boundaries like most other continents  large political and economic significance (how we think of Europe)  at this time that we will be talking about it was not like this at all (it was a complete backwater)  very thin populations and no economy  They were not dominate in this period, they were what other people in this period would call uncivilized - the dividing time between classical and medieval (500 AD)…after this time is what this class will focus on - Mediterranean means the middle of the world…so people who lived there were in the center of everything - it turns from being the focus to the dividing like (around the 6 thcentury)  this separation defines Europe, byzantine world, the Muslim world st th - The Roman Empire: Borders 1 and 4 centuries (200 bc – 500 ad)  it was a diverse and very complicated state at its height  population levels were very high  urbanization levels were very high  very commercial civilization  had a very complicated and sophisticated society  the east was the commercial center of the empire (wealthier and more highly populated)  The west was more rural and less populated (still more populated that the coming eras)  It exploited slave labour  Although the romans dominated this era it was also a highly local and separately run  They were run by leaders (each area)  In each of the areas there would have been indigenous languages  They also spoke some greek  Ambitious people became bilingual in their local languages and either latin or greek  (east was greek, west of latin)  Latin was very important especially in the west  Writing was highly developed, very developed societies  Learning to write and read was associated with wealth and power, not everyone did, but those who did were highly educated in it  The romans gave the Mediterranean basin stability and peace for about 3-400 years….there were some small battles, but no major wars  This allowed for the development of commerce  Christianity develops in the far west of the roman empire…it gets carried to the rest of the area and it is important in the development of Europe The “Decline and Fall” of the Roman Empire, 3 rdto 6thcenturies: - split of empire into east and west, greek and latin - economic and social rigidity - around the year 300, the empire which was already culturally distinct between east and west was officially split into two empires (Constantinople and Byzantine)  in the 4thand 5 thcentury there are economic and social problems all over the empire, the west is much more serious of the east  the population was falling and there was demographic collapse in the west  the west was agricultural and if there is not enough manpower to farm then fields then everything will go downhill (no food, no trade, no money)  there was a flight of people with capital towards the east  then all types of political problems arose  In 476 the roman empire (falls) o Deposition of Romulus Agustulus, last emperor in the west, by the barbarian king, Odoacer o “The Last Legion” o Romulus Augustus becomes the father of Britain o We have this idea of barbarians as being very different from romans (pelts, dirty, long hair) Problems with the conventional popular view: 1. Roman empire in the east did not fall, but continued until 1453, ruled from Constantinople (“Byzantine Empire”) 2. No sudden fall of imperial rule in the west but breakdown over more than 200 years  Widthdrawal from Britain and spain c. 410  OTOH, senate continues to sit in rome until 530’s  Definitive imperial loss of Italy only in 568 The Birth of the Middle ages 9/6/2012 10:19:00 AM Problems with conventional popular view on the “fall” of the Roman Empire - its not something that was sudden and they didn’t lose all power right away (happens over 300 years) still had control of the east for a while - Britain and Spain withdraw (410) - otoh, senate continus to sit in rome until 530 - roman and barbarians were not neat separate categories Barbarians -Non-roman speaking - outside of that culture - it a from where you stand from kind of thing - they live outside the empire….the barbarians that are of most interest of us are those from above the Mediterranean part of the empire - they spoke Germanic languages - this whole area is an area where there was a lot of different groups of people mixing - these people did not write, so they do not have their own records - but what we can tell from other people is that there were some large confederacies that were forming - culturally and biologically there was a lot of mixing going on - most of what we know comes from roman and Greek observers…most of the writers didn’t even meet these people, they just wrote about other peoples stories - they wrote what we call treatises…they are usually used as a moral story…telling romans to buck up and be more soft…also to make romans look more civilized and their women were more loyal -There had long been movement against the frontier…movement of goods and people ever since the beginning of the roman empire - it was much more densely populated on the border -The roman’s economy was heavily dependent on slave labour, most of their slaves were coming from this land Great Migrations or Barbarian Invasions - what started the migrations?  Push: movement tends towards this area from far out (like a domino effect) Look at map on slide  Pull: population rise most western barbarian area that caused them to move down  Opportunistic moves (to move to a more wealthy society)  Most of that movement does not go to the east (wealthier part) but to the west (5 thcentury) o Lacks roman administration o Less people o Empty farms o There were warriors and farmers that moved to this place o Complications of Roman and Barbarian Identities - Flavius Stilicho (408)  early 5th century roman general – leads roman army to defeat gothic army  roman Christian  Latin-speaking  of Germanic (vandal) origin  ultimately executed on suspicion of treachery  Considers himself as a Roman, makes some mistakes, gets executed  A lot of people are of Germanic background at this point  Probably would have been considered roman his entire life until they wanted something to blame him for - The roman army becomes heavily barbarianized - Right around 400, the romans adopt a more complicated military strategy  - Federate (a war lords band of men) Battle of the Catalaunian Fields (Chalons) 451 -Hunnic Army (under Attila)  suevi, franks, bungundians, gepids, Goths, Huns - Roman army (under aetius, general of the Germanic origin)  Goths, franks, Bretons, … Odoacer (aka Flavius Odovacer) - in the early 470’s he became a general - he was given command of a bunch of federate troops - Romulus Agustulus was emperor (his father was a Germanic official) - Odoacer was on the outs with Romulus’s dad and so exiles him - Odoacer instead of becoming emperor himself decides to call himself king of Italy, with the backing of eastern Rome. - He mints coins - He lives out the rest of his reign…gets killed by the emperor The roman empire and the barbarian Kingdom, 526 - From about 500 onwards you are getting in the west a post imperial area - Rome is still technically in charge but they are so far away that they really do not matter - so what we see now is a patchwork of Barbarian kingdoms - this doesn’t mean the end of romans or the end of roman culture Roman Reactions: From the Center - Protecting the core, abandoning the periphery  Pulling out of Britain and Spain - Alliance with Barbarian confederacies  E.g. The Visigoths in southern Gaul - Try to integrate them rather than fight them Roman Reactions: in the Localities - Accommodation - Practical recognition of new power realities (eg roman bishops cooperating with warlords) - Both sides assimilate  romans adopt “barbarian” military practices, culture  Immigrants adopt roman culture, political practice, religion th - By early 7 century, assimilation largely complete - They need each other, Barbarians need romans for tax collected, roman superiority, etc. The romans do not want to all die, they want to keep their lives and homes - By the 7th century the romans are highly Christianized - The governor gets destroyed from the 5 thcentury on, the Bishop becomes more powerful - From about 400-700 the two groups of barbarians and romans no longer distinctly exist, the two groups meld together in a way that they become culturally distinct from one another Empire and Barbarian Kingdoms, 526 - some speak Latin, some do not - There are huge language disputes - all of these places end up speaking latin based languages - culture comes from the barbarians backgrounds more so then romans - Britain is the only area that speaks a Germanic language, likely because of the relatively thin layer of romans in Britain Transitions and accommodations - Bridge at Merida, Spain – repaired in the later 5thcentury by king Euric the Visigoth, in cooperation with the local roman bishop of Mérida…the bridge still exists today Pagans and Christians - Polytheism (paganism: someone who lives in the countryside, who believed all sorts of stupid things) - people in charge at this time believed in many gods, picking up new gods is not a problem, very tolerant and inclusive - roman religion had become an integral part of imperial rule, emperors took on god-like qualities, especially after death - You cannot challenge an emperor (like or was a god) - Religion in the Roman Empire around the birth of Christ  Roman Paganism  Judaism o Under roman rule, tended to leave them alone as long as they were not trying to convert people o Judea, was given a semi-autonomous status around the birth of Christ, king herod o Melded with Christianity to make sects o Messianic: Jesus of Nazareth The Birth of the Middle ages 9/6/2012 10:19:00 AM The beginnings of Christianity:  Jesus of Nazareth, 4-30 BCE-CE  BC/AD dating system (Wrong that it started when Jesus was born) o It caught on because of bede and the Latin world catching on to it  Jesus led a group of Jewish messianic radicals as the son of god  He had a very small but dedicated group of followers  He was arrested and executed because his message was seen as dangerous  The bible was compiled from 60CE into the second century  The followers grew slowly but steadily from 50-300  Christianity had developed in a lot of urban areas by 300  Somewhere between 1 and 5 percent of the roman empires population were Christians  These communities were very dedicated, they also tended to be very influential in society, due to wealth and political presence  Judaism and Greek philosophy were the two main roots for Christianity at this time o Plato and the one, and scripture based Judaism  The bible o The 4 Gospel’s that were canonized o The letters of Paul o Various Apocalyptic books (revelation, by John) How did Roman’s react (authorities), three stages: 1. Persecution (1-300):  The Christians denied the truthfulness of other religions, especially roman paganism  You don’t think the emperor is a god and be very vocal about it  there were sporadic bouts of persecution, Diocletian (known for Christians being thrown to the lion) Christians had grown too large for this type of authority and it allowed for martyrs. Diocletian was the highest and last stage of the persecution. 2. Toleration (313):  Constantine was on the eve of a major battle and he has a dream where god appears to him and says, in the sky you will see my sign, a cross, I will help you win and you will convert to Christianity. He was an emperor.  From this point onwards, not only is it tolerated it becomes the religion of the imperial family.  This is probably the birth of the cross as the primary Christian emblem, before that it was the fish  By adopting Christianity, Constantine, makes it easier for Christians to study and for Christianity to grow as the main religion. It then becomes the standard religion of the ruling classes.  We don’t know how it spreads to the working class, there are no records By 600, Christianity dominated almost the entire roman empire 3. Official Religion (391):  Emperor Theodosius makes it the official religion and bans Paganism The Eastern and Western Branches formed due to the already large divisions in culture:  East: Greek Orthodox  West: Roman Catholic (Latin) o Becomes the cradle of the branches we have today (protestant and catholic)  Isolation between the two grows stronger and stronger over time, in doctrine and in practice The Great Schism:  Both sides are heretics, they still hate each other today Religion and the Barbarians: Paganism - They worshipped Norse Gods - It was a very malleable religion - When the barbarians became part of the roman army, they found it very easy to find similarities between the sects of paganism Arian Christianity th  Early 4 century, the Goths converted to this sect of Christianity  Has nothing to do with the Nazi kind  Named after an early 4 thcentury Greek theologian and Arius, right at the period that Christianity was becoming tolerated - The Trinity  one god, with three persons or aspects  God the father, God the son, God the Holy Spirit  What is the relationship between these three beings, and how can they exist as 3.  Some theologians argued that all three are equally divine  Arius didn’t understand so he came up with another scenario when only God the father was holy divine, the spirit and the son were not  Calls a council at Nicaea in 325 and they hammer out the official doctrine of the Christian church in the roman empire  Nicene creed  Orthodox (3in1)  Arius (outside this main idea)  Before 325 Arius sent missionaries (Wulfila) to a group of Goths living outside the empire to convert them, he translated the Christian bible into gothic, he invents the writing basically  To be Arian was to be a barbarian Not all Barbarians were Arian Christians, the franks and Anglo-Saxons were pagans. - Franks (late part of the 5 thcent.)  Clovis, the first king of France, he was actually very Germanic  In northern Gaul, Clovis in 500 ruled over a majority Roman Catholic population  Paganism is deeply a part of who they are  As a good king though he had to accommodate local roman aristocrats and government officials, the Christian clergy  Options: o Stay with tradition: Paganism, like his dad o Go with barbarian Christianity: Arianism, Theodor the Ostrogoth who was very influential at the time o Go with Roman Catholicism  As a trial run he married a Christian woman, Clothilde  He also marries an Arian Visigoth  Ends up deciding to go with roman Catholicism o He is able to align himself with far more powerful men by converting to roman Catholicism  He was facing a major battle against some pagans, god again appears to him and says if you see a cross in the sky you will win and then convert to Christianity, he says that he is the new Constantine! (500) o Might be a tipping point for the dominance of roman Catholicism in western society Assimilation and Syncretism: - Techniques of Conversion:  mainly through the franks that the conversion happened, but the bishop of Rome also sent missionaries, he said to put Christianity in terms they will understand. o Saint Brigid (two different people who were merged as one, the Christian one) o Eostre (Easter, derived from the name of a pagan goddess o Feast of St. John The Birth of Europe: - Accommodation and synthesis of Roman, Christian, and barbarian cultures Carolingians and Vikings 9/6/2012 10:19:00 AM Highly recommends that we have a timeline, to visualize the expanse of time (since we are looking at such vast amounts of history)  Important to grasp the generations The precursors of western Christendom Roman culture Barbarian Culture Christianity -the roman empire - people beyond roman emp. 500-800 CE (timeline of this class) The Successors of classical Mediterranean civilization: - the eastern roman empire (the byzantine empire)  this goes on until 1453  revival, under Justinian, during the first half of the 6century o he was the last Latin speaking emperor in the roman empire o he had a vision that he was going to restore the empire, did not happen  the borders shifted throughout these centuries  it is important that this society was deeply invested in being roman and saving romanitas - The Islamic world, the southern shores of the Mediterranean  Muhammad, 632 CE  After his death Islam had spread quite a bit, remarkable and very quite expansion  They made a lot of translations from ancient Greek in to Arabic, then from Arabic into Latin  We will talk about the Muslims in Spain in a subsequent lecture, they stay there until 1492, then called Iberia The two above remain the better two for a while in terms of population, economics, etc - western Christendom, the runt of the litter at this point Economic and Demographic decline: - slow decline  One of the things that allows a lot of people to live in one city is commerce to feed the people in the city, in order to have a commercial society you have to have consumers  violence, wont trade if there is too much danger, risk is too high - when we get into the 6 thcentury, population decline gets really high  epidemic diseases, the plague of Justinian, bubonic plague  malnutrition was very severe  450-600, there used to be a town of 10 thousand, then only a couple hundred were living in it in the 6 thcentury  people eating meat covered in ash, they had nothing to cook it in  they had fences to have protection from wolves  people live from what they can make, gather and kill themselves, it is a poor self-sufficient society  authority is extremely local Localization of governing authority  Ad hoc  Swearing fealty, women do not do this, it was a military thing  You made an oath to the person, a Christian oath very soon, and to break it was the very worst sin that you could do.  Might have been what kept things from getting out of control  Development of the idea of kingship Out of this very dire situation, you begin to get the development of what is needed to be a king, a leader in a particular locality The idea of Kingship: “Who made you king, then?” - Devine/supernatural designation  farcical aquatic ceremonies  favour of the pagan gods (even divine ancestry)  The Christian God’s favour (anointment) - inheritance/dynastic claim  kinship based, family very important - military success as a proof of divine approbation and the “right stuff” of royal bloodline  all of these things are working together None of these things necessarily means that you cannot be over-throned - Realpolitik: force, charisma - You have to be absolutely ruthless The Frankish Kingdoms from Merovingian to Carolingians - The early franks under the Merovingians  5 -6 thcenturies “Reges crinite [long haired kings]”, only the kings could have long hair - they (Clovis and hilderick and merovech) did not have dynastic claim, so they made it up on the spot, an ancestry which was divine Clovis claim for the throne:  Made sure there was no one else in the male line for the throne except his sons, he killed everyone else We cannot talk about a Frankish kingdom in this period, it was plural All sons inherited equally, to when Clovis died, his sons divided the kingdom…so from this time on there were a number of shifting Frankish kingdoms that were constantly at war with one another Through the 6 thcentury and into about 650 the Merovingian kings were probably known as Frankish kings  After this the power switched over to the aristocracy  It was still impossible for anyone but a Merovingian to be a king The rise of the Carolingians: - they were mayors (the greatest man) of the palace, they were an aristocratic family  they were the guys who ran things for the king - Charles Martel: battle of the Poitiers, 732  under Charles’s rule it was the first time since the franks are united since Clovis  there was kind of a war of religions at this time  Charles decides not to take the title of king himself - Pepin the short  deposition of the last Merovingian king, childeric III, 752 o he has to work the propaganda to make this happen o so we have dynastic claim vs. war success (realpolitik) o Childeric was not a war leader and the franks were not anymore either o Pepin harnesses the power of the church o Zachery, the head of the church declares Pepin as king on the basis that god means for the guy with all the power to be king…God has shifted his favor from the Merovingian family to the Carolingian family o So the cut the long hair of Childeric, emasculating him, then he is sent to a monastery to be a monk, then he mysteriously dies Carolingians and Vikings 9/6/2012 10:19:00 AM The Rise of the Carolingians rd  Pepin the short or 3 deposed the last Merovingian king Anointment of kings  Biblical precedent (kings of Israel)  Anointment of bishops and archbishops: a sacred ceremony  Pepin was crowned and anointed (holy oil used to appoint a person as a king or queen), it is something that is still extensively used in court today o this is the beginning of that European type of anointment that we still have today  they are attempting to draw a line between the kings of Israel and themselves  When bishops and abbots were brought into they position they were also anointed by their superior  They were trying to take away the public relations problems that occur with a seizure of the throne o People would buy into this new system  The Carolingian takeover is one that happens fairly easily Charlemagne (768-814) or Charles the Great  He is just as much a German predecessor as a French one  He had a very long reign  He was also crowned as emperor on Christmas day in the year 800  He is one of the most famous Medieval king??  Became the kind of figurehead of what later on becomes Western Europe  He is a Germanic Warrior king, a Christian, and becomes a roman emperor Germanic Warrior King:  The Carolingians came from the Germanic parts of the Frankish Realms  He was bilingual, he spoke Latin (but the ancestor of French)  He was a giant (6’3”, people were shorter then because of lack of nutrition)  Fearless soldier and talented military strategist  He is known to have enjoyed listening to Germanic legends of heroism, Norse mythology  He was kind of a Frankish cultural nationalism  Warm, generous, talkative, hard, cruel and violent o You could never be entirely sure what he was going to do…he kept everybody on their toes, he was ruthless o Pepin had another son, Charlemagne and Carloman, he killed his brother for the whole kingdom  The reason why this worked was because there was substance behind the reputation o He annexed large areas early on in his reign, large part of northern Italy, causing it to still be a rich area today o He annexed Saxony, savagely o He had lots of tributary provinces, they gave him money and he protected him o This sets up a buffer because he has allies on all sides…so it is very hard to get at him o If you look at the area it covers, it pretty much covers the entire European union that exists today, and that is why he is considered to have started this society o He doubled the kingdom from what he inherited Pious Christian:  Religion as political loyalty o this was very mainstream for his day o if you are anointed and chosen by god, then to a certain extent those who follow you must follow your god o forcing people into the new religion, either get baptized or off with your head  He was as from what we can see was a fervent believer  religion as protection (apotropaic powers of relics) o This was a very mainstream way for people to see religion in general o We see this in his devotion to relics  Primary and secondary (actual body parts and things that touched body parts of saints) o Apotropaic powers, seen to have protective powers  Charlemagne would search for them and then donate them to a church  There are a lot of people who believe in lucky things and relics today…eBay (holy nail!)  Not everybody believed it, but there were a lot of people who did  He was a patron of Christian learning, he invited all of these people to his court, it was a kind of revival of learning to the court o The Carolingian renaissance o Alcuin of York  The development of a new writing system, Carolingian miniscule…looks like our standard Latin Language type fonts o They still wrote in Latin Roman Emperor:  Roman Emperors: nd th o 2 -5 cent.  Byzantine Empire to 1453 th th  9 – early 10 cent. Carolingian Emperors  962, Otto revives the title to 1806, the holy roman empire  Pope crowned him on Christmas  He doesn’t really get anything,  The roman empire was constantly seen as the great good old days from about 500-800  A connection to “New Rome”, contemporary Constantinople o Was seen as a great kingdom, with the greatest treasures o He is saying I am a pier with them  He builds himself a palace at Aachen, he uses Byzantine buildings as his model o How did the Byzantines feel, at the time they had an empress who a lot of the empire did not agree with…so instead of trying to get back at him for it she aligned with him to keep her position…she tried marrying her daughter to his son  Connection to the Roman Church o By this point the church was seen as being the repository of classical learning and being roman o Pope is not that important, just an arm of god (what Charlemagne thought) His empire was ungovernable, poor and the bottom of empire’s at the time Louis the Pious (814-840)  The empire lasted through his reign, but fell apart afterwards  Ended his reign with all three of his sons against him  After his reign the empire was divided into three because he had three sons and that was the norm  Seen as the disintegration of Charlemagne’s empire o Charles the bald (France) o Lothar (becomes broken up) o Louis the German (Germany) A New Age of Invasions/Migrations, 800-1000 - all non-Christian groups  The Hungarians or Magyars o Become the founders of the kingdom of Hungary, they are nomadic, not sedentary…they make their living off of raiding, creating chaos, they do this for about 100 years or so, there is a great battle in 955 against the Magyars, led by Lechfeld  The Saracens or Muslims o They move into Iberia and they stay there until 1492, its not really these Muslims that cause problems in northern Europe, its those coming from Africa, they decide that raiding would be good to, they raid through pirating o Wealth tends to be concentrated in particular places, monasteries and nobles  Worth it for them to raid even though they were the backwater of Europe  The Vikings or Norsemen o The greatest impact, people coming from the north (Scandinavia) o They were a Germanic people o There were three main groupings, Danes, swedes, Norwegians  Swedes go east, into what becomes Russia, and the Baltic states  The Danes tend to go towards England and the coast of northern France  The Norwegians tend to move northwest towards Iceland, newfoundland, etc. o Raiding and Plundering  Very difficult to defend against  They did not observe Christian etiquette or Christian monasteries  Vikings quickly found out that there were these areas that were undefended with lots of treasure, and they would raid them  Its hard for us to know precisely how terrible these raids were as the ones who were being raided were the ones who were writing the chronicles Revival, Recovery, and Reform 9/6/2012 10:19:00 AM The Vikings: Raiding and Plundering th  Grave maker, 9 century  Groups from Scandinavia raiding different parts of England The Vikings: Settling (after 850)  Second wave of Viking raids  They would settle and take over rather than just plunder them  There are a lot of everyday nouns that we use that were Scandinavian Conversion to Christianity  Conversion upon settlement of the Scandinavians Viking Raiding and Migration  Why did they start moving?  Motivations for: o Raiding  For wealth acquisition  Prestige involved because it is a warrior society  Greatest warrior by bringing back the most gold  Win political favor by wealth distribution…need to have men bringing you gold because they want you to be king. Raiding was integral to the development of the political process.  Through those kinds of raids that they see that certain areas would be good places to settle o Settling  Family groups, mostly agriculturalists  Combine the knowledge of new places and other people moving, people begin to leave and they pour out of Scandinavia  The technology of movement: the longship o Scandinavia had the most advanced ship building techniques o Ships were often built for burials, they were probably the same ones that they sailed on o They were very large, very maneuverable o A true Viking ship used a mast and a sail th o Addition of sails around the 8 century o You could direct them because of the way the sails were built, they were a lot easier to direct  Viking decorative arts: o They had gold and could make crazy cool things with it o Prow, brooch o Viking chessmen: isle of Lewis chessmen, made from walrus th ivory (13 century) o Vikings were really into chess o It’s the chess set used in harry potter, first movie th th Carolingian Europe, 8 to 10 centuries  Economy o Mostly agricultural – but inefficient, low productivity o Very little trade, use of money as medium of exchange disappears  Politics o With exceptions (eg. Charlemagne), rule is  Fragmented  Local  Personal  Based on military lordship 10 thcentury Europe on the brink of change  Turnaround c. 1000 o The demographic revolution o The Agrarian Revolution o The growth of towns and development of commerce o Growing Political Stability: The new monarchies  Begin to see centralization of power  Between 1000 and 1300 we see huge growth in Europe o Historians think the population tripled o Drop in 14 thcentury: black death Economic Revival: The Demographic Revolution  Some this seems to be due to the end of raiding by the Vikings  Muslim raiding stops  Essentially there is more peace Economic revival: The Agrarian Revolution  Technological innovations in farming (heavy plow, works in the th th heavy soils in northern Europe in 9 and 10 cent, practices changed: from 2 field system to 3 field system, two under crops, one laying fallow (soil was already richer)) + More land under cultivation (introduced new vegetables: legumes which fix nitrogen into the soil and make the soil richer, richer soil, these legumes gave them more protein and so gave them a much better diet, therefore population explodes because people and infants can live longer) o Much healthier population  Much healthier women (more ovulation, more babies and more babies surviving)  More babies!!! A farming family can now produce more than they need to eat  You have a surplus and you sell it at a market The rebirth of Commerce and Growth of Towns  Towns growing up all over the place in Europe  Market towns where people would bring their agricultural surpluses to sell  People who live in them do not themselves produce food  People in England raising sheet whose wool was being sold to people in Flanders who spun it and sold it to people in Italy…etc. All of this ends in the reintroduction of money Around 1300 you get even more complicated credit transactions th th Growing Political Stability: New Monarchies of the 11 and 12 centuries On final exam: link up all of this material from this lecture to the other 3  Long term development of two [three] major European monarchies o England o France o [Holy Roman Empire] Paths to Royal Authority: King as chief lord, king as chief bureaucrat  The king as chief lord (personal relationship with vassals – political power as private and situational/ad hoc) o Power passed down through private inheritance  The king as chief bureaucrat (power exercised through government institutions – political power as public and abstract) o Power exercised in name of an abstraction such as “the crown”  Ad hoc: specific to a situation, as opposed to something that is the same across different situations  Kings begin to develop a different way of thinking about what it means to be king o Who the king rules: he becomes the king of all the people in the realm directly…deals with things directly rather than through the vassals o People that the vassals deal with are getting uppity, so he has to show that he exercises his power directly o Develop a burocracy, a group who work for you as king and who look out for your interests in those locality’s  Those people act in your name  People begin to think and act on behalf of the crown o Becomes something that is not personal to the king anymore, more so something that belongs to the people  Kings liked this a lot at first because it gave them a way to bypass the vassals, the other nobles.  Before if you had to take something to court, it was the vassal who ran the court…the king said no I should be the one to run the court….so the king set up his own court that would be cheaper and fairer than the vassals court….very powerful tool in creating royal authority in these places 9/6/2012 10:19:00 AM Paths to royal authority: king as chief lord, king as chief bureaucrat - The king as lord (personal relationship with vassals – political power as private and situational/ad hoc) – king must always take advice from the chief men of his realm  barons  power passed down through private inheritance  principle of consultation  in a sense a lot of the elements that make up democracy come out of these essential elements - The king as chief bureaucrat (power exercised through government institutions – political power as public and abstract)  power exercised in name of an abstraction such as “the crown”  possibility of autocratic rule England from Anglo-Saxons to Normans - 4-5th century, romans pull out of England th - 5 century - The heptarchy and the Dane law th - middle of the 9 century the Vikings arrive - Alfred the great, r. 871-899 - Anglo-Saxon Kingship and consultation: the witan  witan, council of wisemen - development of royal officials and bureaucracy: sheriffs, chancery  division of England into county’s or shires o royal official appointed for each division o these survived in tact until 17something o office of sheriff’s still exists The Norman Conquest, 1066 - Edward the confessor  after his death there was no clear heir to the throne  Harold Godwinson was designated by the witan as king o He was a powerful man, most land, he and his family had controlled the whole kingship during the reign of Edward the confessor  This opened up a kind of free for all o Several people decided to try and take place of Harold to control the kingdom o He had two challenges  He won the first and lost the second  Second was William the duke of Normandy  William, Duke of Normandy, Battle of Hastings o Becomes the new king, by right of conquest o Bayeux tapestry, Norman account Norman England (1066-1154)  Leads to a lot of substantial changes in England  He adopts a lot of the laws in England because he likes them  Maintains the sheriffs, maintains the ritz, maintains the witan with a new name  Changes the official language to latin  His barons were all appointed by him  Battles in 1066 (3) o Almost all of the barons of England were killed in the battles, those who survived had to flee  So William has an opportunity that barely no medieval king has which is to appoint all of his own men, who would owe everything they have to him, so they wouldn’t turn on him so easily o They were all from Normandy, so it would be profitable for them to support his reign  All of the ruling class of England comes from a different place and speaks a different language than those who are being ruled o They are all French speaking o The people that they rule are all English speaking o This continues for 300 years  After about 100 years the question of who was Norman and who was English becomes less of a distinction o The people below the elite keep speaking English, but they do adopt a lot of the vocabulary of the French and some of their grammar  Pig, cow, sheep (Germanic route) – people who farmed the animals  Pork, beef, mutton (Latin route) – people who ate the meat - What we see following William’s very strong rule is a very strong kingship which survived some very bad kings  consultation element, which will ultimately break autocracy in the th 17 century The West Frankish Kingdom (France) - By 888, the last coronation for a Carolingian coronation in the west - too much of a joke to crown king as emperor, barons did not pay attention to him, it was a joke, all theoretical - Decentralization of French Kingship - 987 the last of the Carolingians died  The Foundation of the Capetian Dynasty: Hugh Capet, 987 o He was chosen because he was weak and least likely to be able to challenge the barons  Hugh Capet would be the beginning of a very long line of kings, one of the longest dynasty o 330 years, 13 generation o on average aristocratic families would not last beyond 2 generations  in the beginning he was not very successful - King of France remains someone whose power is very limited  William is theoretically a subject of the king of France and the King of England at the same time  He remains the Duke of Normandy and keeps it separate from England - Bit by bit the Capetian kings begin to gain control of more area From Weakness to Power, 12 tht 13 thcent.  He does this because he wins a battle against king John of England and wins some area  There are no barons in these areas o Do this through marriage  Phillip II (1180-1223) o Worked on bureaucracy and won a battle against king John  French Kingship didn’t have that consultation built in Dealing with crime: From compensation to royal justice  Wergeld  Courts essentially didn’t exist to deal with crime  So they created their own, a wrongdoer should deal with the consequences o A monetary compensations o Wergild: depending on what class you were the prices went up and down  Was to avoid useless killing for revenge  Private system  Meant to be a deterrent  These kinds of wrongs: murder, stealing, etc o Become an offence against society and the king, against the public good  So should become something that should be handled publicly and not privately and so this became an issue  Establish a rule so that any major crime must go through a king court o Must go through a trial in a royal court, under a judge who acts in the name of the king o He then gives a punishment which would be execution o Now instead of the person being compensated the king gets what the person stole…so the king really likes this  This becomes really powerful as a symbol of the kings rule o Justice is something that the king gives to his people o The king has to keep peace o Offence against the king o Important step in this idea of authority of the king Germany and the Holy Roman Empire - 962, Otto I decides he wants to take the crown  Founded the holy roman emperors  They are the most powerful in Europe because they are in control of a lot of money which gives them power  This is not a political form that will have longevity, they are not interested in reaching out and having direct power in the localities, they are okay with reaching out and delegating power…will not develop into a strong state o Holy roman empire, loose confederation of highly independent states o Being the emperor is not really that important from this point onwards  They hinder the development of unified nation states like Italy and Germany for along time - strong kingship based on regionalism - king as Lord – buy not as chief bureaucrat Three Paths to Modern State - England: strong monarchy combined with tradition of consultation - France: from decentralization to high degree of monarchical power - Germany/HRE: strong kinship/emperorship based on regionalism – but focused on lordship, not burocracy The Development of Christian Constitutions - In the early middle ages (as we come out of the late roman ages)  there were centers of religious power - only one patriarch in the west and he was called the bishop of Rome, pope - the pope was really someone who had a tradition of being called the ehad of the church but not really being able to put this into practice  there were some who were able to do this, but it did not happen very often The Development of Christian Institutions: The Papacy  Pope Gregory I  The popes usually had to seek secular leaders as protectors, so often these leaders could control them to a certain degree, in return for protection  Pope was stationed in Rome, Rome was a city, those who were rivals in rome used the office of the pope as a foothold for their fight - Holy Roman Emperor decided to redefine the papacy  made a monk pope  brought all of the ecclesiastical minds of the day to Rome to run the papacy  emperor died and left a boy as the head - The papcy decided that they should be able to run the show themselves without influence  in 1051, the pope and the group of men around him (college of cardinals) created a papal election decree  pope would be elected by the college of cardinals, rather than the king or nobles or rich families o this system still exists today - when henry IV became older he realized he didn’t like this idea  so deciding who decides who gets to be pope becomes a huge issue 9/6/2012 10:19:00 AM Church Reform in the High Middle Ages th  11 century papal reform  Growth of papal power in the 12 thand 13 thcentury o Struggle with lay powers, esp. HRE o “Papal monarchy”  law codes  bureaucracy o clergy/lay divide o deeper Christianization  Innocent III (1196-1216) o He achieved a great deal o Acted as the arbiter mundi  Means of the world o This guy was the high point th  13 century o lawyer popes  trained as so  very legal mind  before this they were known as men of great holiness  this is not so anymore  kind of like politicians  By 1300 or so, popes of men of poor honesty o Relationships between kings and popes are quite bad The Crusades:  The idea of the crusade: armed pilgrimage  First crusade, 1096-99  Crusader=frank=faranjin Arabic: The Crusader states and later states  Crusader states are set up  Muslims are winning some areas back and so there are more crusades  Second crusade 1147  Third crusade 1189 o Kings get involved, Richard the lion heart, king of France, holy roman emperor o It’s a big failure o They fought more against one another than the Muslims  Fourth crusade 1204 o Momentum is lost after this one o The crusaders all got together and travelled to Constantinople and there is a debate over something and they capture Constantinople Effects of the Crusades  Economic effects o No wars at this time o People could pay more attention to their crops  Cultural contact with east: the Muslim Turk as “other”  Concept of crusade used in other contexts o Crusades against European heretics: the albigensian crusade o Crusade against Muslims in Iberia: the Reconquista Iberia:  From convivencia to exile: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in medieval Iberia  What we call Spain today  Muslim Iberia: great mosque at Cordoba, 9 -10 th thcenturies o One of the largest cities, if not the largest in Europe at the time th  Alhambra Palace, Grenada (14 century) Late Medieval Crises: Famine, Disease, War 9/6/2012 10:19:00 AM Terminology: - Ancient (->500) - Medieval (-> 1500)  Early (500 - 1000)  High (1000 – 1300)  Late (1300 – 1500) - Early Modern (-> 1800) - Modern (1800 - ?) Iberia (late Medieval Period, from last class) Europe was at a high point in their economics, etc.  All periods of growth come to an end at some point and sometimes come to s crash Europe had an economic depression in the 14 thcentury - from 1300 to 1425 half the population dies in Europe, may have been much less we do not have the exact number th - grew a bit in the 15 century - only really starts to climb in the 16hcentury - this large loss of people was a substantial loss to Europe - The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1498, Albrecht Durer)  Death  Famine  Disease  War - many people thought that they were living through the end time Famine:  Early 14 thcentury o Overpopulation  Subsistence crisis  A spiraling upwards effect, more people, more food o Famines 1290-1325  Spiraling downwards effect, less food, less people  Specifically in northern Europe  There was a mini ice-age  Which made it rain more  Your crops will not ripen because there will not be enough sun and they don’t dry enough to take it off the field  1317-25, large amount of death every year  25% of the population dies because of these issues  More land under cultivation than before or since, every scrap of land was being used to grow crops  Agricultural revolutions o Exhaustion of the soil, but its hard to say when you have not enough food that you will only farm this field every 2 or 3 years…you are worrying about this winter o There was no margin for maneuver o The resources themselves were actually starting to diminish because the land wasn’t being replenished  People do not die of starvation, they die of an opportunistic disease…a disease that feeds an those whose immune systems are diminished  The aristocracy do not really die from this except if they are at war, they do not have diet problems  The population of Europe falls about 10-25% in the 14 thcentury 1325-1340  population takes a dive upwards  all of a sudden there was more food, the weather shifted again  they have babies and the population rose maybe to the old number by the 1940’s The Black Death: the nature of the Disease - came back every generation for a long time - considered by many as the most significant thing in European history - it travelled and would hit for 3-4 months - short lived and devastating blow - hits Italy in 1347, but doesn’t hit England until later on  the Italians are getting this because they are super sinful and we are not going to get it because God likes us  Medieval/Early Modern interpretation: miasma, astrological conjunctions, God o Message from God o Miasma: a cloud that the disease flew around in, its invisible but its there in the air…corrupted air o Astrological conjunctions – that god used the constellations ass one of his ways of delivering messages to the earth…might be a trigger  Germ Theory Medical interpretation (from c. 1900): bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) o This is the idea that we now accept o 1890, disease in Hong Kong, studied by the greatest on disease control at the time o probably came from southern Asia originally  Current Debates: some other disease o They diagnosed the disease in retrospect o There are some aspects of the disease in the middle ages as it functioned that were different from the bubonic plague o One of the signs of a modern bubonic plague is that there are dead rats everywhere o There was no mention of dead rats in medieval art or lit o There has been a big debate about this  The images on the slides about the black death o That doesn’t look like the bubonic plague o The people there are most likely to have not been people with the black death but people with smallpox o The greatest mortality comes from the children that were born between the two epidemics  They have been able to find y. pestis in the bones, the thing is that it did not act the same as it did before…maybe that it mutated so that it could be passed from person to person and not rat to rat - it was amazingly deadly with an extremely high mortality rate - first signs in 1320’s possibly 1330’s in china - starts in Italy for Europe because of a trade war with asia - happens over 3 years - there were these weird areas that it did not hit at all  Poland, they were isolated, fewer people  Milan missed the first epidemic Reactions:  A message from God o People were pretty darn sinful o Up kick in more extreme religious movements o Flagellants  Whipped themselves and each other for their penance for sins  No more Jews, no more sinning, etc  Eat, drink, marry, be happy  In subsequent outbreaks people just kind of accept that this is what happens Subsequent Outbreaks  The Pestilence Returns 1361, 1369, and then every 15 to 25 years, until last European outbreaks in the early 18 thcentury (350 years)  At each outbreak the mortality lessens and so the Y, pestis weakens The Plague and the Medical Profession Giovanni Boccaccio:  “ No doctor’s advice, no medicine seemed to be of any help. Either the disease was incurable or the doctors simply didn’t know how to cure it” A Fair assessment? Economic effects of the Black Death  Scarcity of Labour o A “Golden Age” for workers and women or era of protectionism? o People being able to do jobs that they would have never hired women to do because they needed someone to do it o People had to pay more for labour o War 9/6/2012 10:19:00 AM English Lands in France: 1066-1300  This was the high point of English holdings in France, in the reign of Henry II  After 1300, we have the hundred years war, 1337 – 1453 o War was actually 117 years  People of the days did not separate this war from others that were going on between England and France  From 1066 the king was a major land owner in France  In 1300 the king of England owned about half the lands in France o These kings are the descendants of William the conqueror o This land accumulated from William the conqueror and marriages and takeover o This area shrinks as we get closer to 1300 o The King of England is a noble of France, makes his equal to and lesser than the king of France all at the same time, this gets confusing Edward III decided he wanted to lay claim to the King of France  He was a grandson of one of the previous kings through the female line, he believed he had a better claim than the present king  What was the real reason? Money, Trade control  They want control over Flanders which is where all of their wool exports went The hundred years war, stage I (1330’s – 1360’s) and stage II (1360-1415) - the war was launched by the English - it was surprise how much they succeeded - England is a smaller, less wealthy kingdom - also launching it in their territory - Stage I  the English have substantial successes  by 1360 the English have expanded their territory in the south  there are two major battles in this period o Crecy 1346, Poitiers 1356: Henry V  Black death comes in the middle of the first phase, where you see the death of some of the nobles  Both sides kind of shut things down  A big lull between ?? - stage III (1415-35)  new king  He re-launches the war in 1415  He has a series of major victories, he gains the whole northern part of France  There are two semi-independent States  He is open to new kinds of battle techniques  Charles VI is for long periods of time non-functional, he is the French king, we think today he may have had schizophrenia o When he dies Henry V will be his heir and he will marry Charles’s daughter and the kingdoms will be joined  Henry is healthy at this point - however a little germ changes history!!!  Henry V catches chronic diarrhea (dysentery) and dies  Charles dies  Henry left behind a 9 month old baby, who looks like is the King of England and France - By the late 1420’s things are starting to rally again, God changes things…  Charles son, the dauphin  Joan of arc, convinces French forces that God is on their side, she directs them at a couple of key battles and they become convinced that God is on their side  They win back some places  Duke of burgundy shifts back to the French side in 1435 - Stage 5  1435-1453, the English are completely kicked out  Calae, the English are allowed to keep as an entryway into the country War in Early and High Middle Ages: encounters  Infrequency of pitched battles  Siege as the most common military encounter o These are often long and drawn out, usually wait till those on the inside starve  Warrior = Knight o Very costly, elaborate armor, weaponry and horse o Had to be a member of the elite  Financing o Kings and other warriors financed wars through land-holding o So you paid for this war by yourself o You are granted land specifically with the idea that you will buy your equipment and support yourselves  Don’t have long drawn out wars o If you are a regular person the wars don’t really affect the peasantry, partly because there is relatively little of it Changes in Warfare in the Later Middle Ages: Encounters  Pitched battles o Changes in tactic and personnel  New combatants: infantry o The longbow  Edward I had a series of wars against the Welsh, they had the Longbows, and he witnessed how effective their weapon was even though he defeated them  It is a very effective but simple weapon, you can train people to use a long-bow very easily and they are very easy and cheap to make  The English made sure that a large number of people were trained to use them  The number of foot soldiers in an army went up substantially o Use them as the main event of your tactics rather than the horse riding knights o Foot soldiers are ordinary men, they are sometimes from the bottom rungs of society  Convicts are employed in armies  This causes a significant shift in how people view warriors  They are no longer part of the elite  Use of mercenaries in this period o Soldiers for hire o The French saw these weapons and how effective they are o They said though why are the English acting non-nobly o So they refused to use these tactics and that’s why they lost so many wars at the beginning of the war  Financing o The relationship between land-holding and fighting is starting to change o Need wages to pay poor men to fight o The number of people participating in a war is suddenly getting much larger o One of the main purpose’s of a government is to raise money to fight wars o Expenses Sky-rocket o Infantry need wages o Taxation  Get money to fight wars through taxation  Going to pay for war by everybody directly Social effects of changes in warfare’  New roles for the aristocracy/ new meanings of knighthood o People start associating soldiers with the lowest of the low o Shift in thinking about somebody who participates in war o The aristocracy have to think of new ways to be elite  Think of new ways to think about a knight o A military function o Continues to be used to the present day o It comes to be separated from military functions  A kind of fake military sport called jousting appears o A knights tale o A spectator sport, people got really excited about it o Take ideas that used to play out on the battle field and put them in an arena, an arena of nostalgia  New effects for the non-combatant populations o Destruction of countryside (scorched earth policies)  Burn fields that the army could use to feed themselves o Brigandage  Hire these bands of soldiers for a particular period of time, at the end of the contract they are just let go  At the end they get paid, if they happen to get paid at all  Start to have men who lose family ties and they jump around from war to war making their money on pillaging the land  These kinds of problems were hard to control in the 14 th and 15th centuries Political effects of the changes in warfare  England and the Development of Parliament: the power of purse strings (control over the money) o English monarch governing with and through parliament o Seeds of parliamentary monarchy  Witan -> consultative  House of commons and parliament o Parliament  Have to seek the parliament permission of when to tax, if they give the king money  The king cannot do without the money that the parliament provides  Happens that the king cannot govern without parliament  France and the seeds of absolutism: no consent needed for taxation o French monarch governing without a representative assembly o Seeds of absolute monarchy  These changes in warfare end up having much larger political implications that end up changing England and France Renaissance South and North 9/6/2012 10:19:00 AM We do not need to know every detail of the textbook and class  Need to know how to marshal an argument and support that argument  There will be essay questions and short answer questions, the short answer questions are about obvious things The Black Death as a turning point  The Dance of death  No matter who you are you are going to die o All leveled at the time of death  After this we have the Renaissance, a rebirth o It does not work chronologically  It coincides the 150 years that follow the black death o Great works of renaissance were being created at the same time as this period of mortality and economic failure  Boccoccio’s prologue o Florentines escape and they live in villa, and over the course of then days each of them has to tell a tale (there are ten of them), each of the tales is a comedy o Its not about death and depression o They are all about life Renaissance gets used a lot more broadly then it is meant to be  It is used to describe a period of intellectual change in Europe  There is this idea that people were unwashed, ungroomed, stupid people before the renaissance…then it came and people were clean, good-looking and smart people  In fact people bathed less after the renaissance  It effected a small portion of society, however it effected more people today, because the way we approach subjects today is partly because the kinds of emphasis education took at the time is similar to how it is today European intellectual culture – before the renaissance  Europe had a thriving and sophisticated culture from the 12 th century onwards…not just during the renaissance!! Exam question  Intellectual culture looked different later, because it was sponsored by and for the church before  Learning was to advance religion, book learning was almost exclusively by the clergy, laymen didn’t really learn books at all  It was appropriate to learn to
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