. direct marketing
direct marketing uses direct communication with consumers to generate a
response in the form of an order, a request for further information, or a visit to a
retail outlet. direct marketing frequently involves interactive communication.
advantages include that direct marketing can be customized to match the
needs of specific target markets. messages can be developed and adapted
quickly to facilitate one-to-one relationships with consumers.
disadvantages include the need for a comprehensive and up-to-date database
with information about the target market which is expensive and time-
consuming to create and maintain, growing concerns about privacy have led
to a decline in response rates among some groups which often necessitates
self-regulation and a combination of promotional approaches to be
the product life cycle
1. introduction stage. in the introduction stage, informing consumers in an
effort to increase their level of awareness is essential. all the promotional
mix elements are used at this time.
2. growth stage. in the growth stage, brand preference and solidifying
distribution are important. emphasis is on advertising and personal
3. maturity stage. to maintain existing buyers in the maturity stage, sales
promotion and direct marketing are important.
4. decline stage. in the decline stage of the product life cycle, little money is
spent on the promotional mix.
c. product characteristics
the more complex or riskier the product, the greater the emphasis on personal
selling. similarly, the more ancillary services or post-sales support required, the
more important is personal selling.
d. stages of the buying decision
1. prepurchase stage. here advertising is most valuable because advertising
informs potential customers about the existence of the product and the
2. purchase stage. personal selling is essential in actual purchase. sales
promotion can encourage demand. 3. postpurchase stage. here the more