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Recruitment .docx

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MANA 298
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Recruitment Recruitment is the first part of the process of filling a vacancy. It includes the process of finding potential candidates, from different sources, to carry out the tasks and making contact with those candidates by attracting applications from them. Selection is that part of the recruitment process when the organisation decides who to employ after having assessed the candidates by various means. Aims of Recruitment The effects of globalisation and world economic recession have forced organisations to revisit their recruitment strategies. In order to survive in this competitive environment, organisations have to optimise the use of their available human resources and obtain and retain the right quantity and quality of new employees. The key aims of recruitment are summarised as follows: • Attracting a group of potential candidates for existing vacancies. • Ensure that fair means and processes are used for all recruitment activities. • All recruitment activities should contribute to the organisation’s goals and objectives and thus, project a positive organisational image to those who come in contact with it. 1 Recruitment Policy An organisation’s recruitment policy outlines the objectives of the recruitment process and provides guidelines as to how the recruitment process should be carried out. (i) Internal vs External Recruiting Internal Recruitment Internal recruitment is when the business looks to fill the vacancy from within its existing workforce. A policy of internal recruiting provides greater opportunities for the advancement of the organisation’s existing employees. It is a source of motivation for better performance, greater efficiency and effectiveness. Benefits: • Cheaper and quicker to recruit • People already familiar with the business and how it operates • Provides opportunities for promotion with in the business – can be motivating • Business already knows the strengths and weaknesses of candidates Drawbacks: • Limits the number of potential applicants • No new ideas can be introduced from outside • May cause resentment amongst candidates not appointed 2 External Recruitment Benefits: • Outside people bring in new ideas • Larger pool of workers from which to find the best candidate • People have a wider range of experience Drawbacks • Longer process • More expensive process due to advertising and interviews required The four most popular ways of recruiting externally are: Job centres – Government agencies to help the unemployed find jobs or get training Job advertisements - the most common form of external recruitment. Where a business chooses to advertise will depend on the cost of advertising and the coverage needed (i.e. how far away people will consider applying for the job) Recruitment agency - Provides employers with details of suitable candidates for a vacancy. They work for a fee and often specialise in particular employment areas e.g. nursing, financial services, teacher recruitment Personal recommendation - Often referred to as ‘word of mouth’and can be a recommendation from a colleague at work. Afull assessment of the candidate is still needed however but potentially it saves on advertising cost 3 (ii) Extrinsic and Intrinsic Reward Pay is an important job characteristic for almost all applicants. A ‘market leader’ approach to pay involves an organisation to remunerate its employees higher than the market average and thus has a distinct advantage in recruiting (e.g. paying higher rates for night shift workers). Organisations that compete for job applicants based on pay do so through offering both extrinsic financial rewards as well as intrinsic rewards. (iii) Employment -at-Will Policies Employment -at-will policies state that either an employer or an employee can terminate the employment relationship at any time, regardless of cause. This policy may be at the detriment of both the employer and the employee and depending on the country in which the company is operating, for example, in Mauritius itself, such a policy may be in contradiction with the country’s labour legislation. However, some companies, have stringent policies which formally lay out the procedures to follow in case an employee wish to appeal against a decision to terminate his/her employment. (iv) ImageAdvertising Organisations may have a policy of advertising to promote themselves as a good place of work. 4 Such advertising is very important for organisations which do business within highly competitive labour markets and they want to be an “employer of choice”. For example, in Mauritius, we have the BritishAmerican Insurance (BAI), Ireland Blyth Limited, Harel Mallac among others, that do much image advertising to promote themselves as a good place to work. (v) Employment Equity Employment Equity policy serves to prevent discrimination in recruitment practices and provides equal opportunities to all citizens of the country. In Mauritius, there are the Constitution, Sex Discrimination Act and the Equal Opportunity Act which guarantee the rights of the citizens of Mauritius and the latter can go to Court in case they feel there has been discrimination of any sort in the recruitment process. (vi) Persons – Organisation Fit Some organisations follow a recruitment policy which provides for optimum fit between the new employee and the organisation’s culture. In Mauritius, this is done usually in the private sector when high calibre officers are required to manage a company. However, at lower level, the recruitment policy promotes the employment of diverse individuals so as to enrich the composition of the workforce. The Recruitment Process The recruitment process stems from the Human Resource Planning stage. Whenever a shortage of human resource has been identified, management has to take necessary steps to ensure the timely supply of labour to fill the identified gap. 5 (i) Alternatives to Recruitment Once a shortage of employees has been identified, the first thing to consider is whether there are alternatives to recruitment. 6 The alternatives are listed hereunder:- • Overtime Overtime is when the actual employees are asked to perform extra hours at work at an agreed rate. However, this alternative cannot be taken as a long-term solution because of issues like fatigue, pace of work and a substantial overall decrease in output. • Subcontracting Subcontracting involves an agreement with a specialised firm to perform the work in part or in full upon payment as agreed by both parties. In such a contract, the external service provider has a high level of commitment as regards to quality and timeliness in fulfilling the contract. This alternative is relatively costly for organisations which have to be competitive and problems like lack of sense of belonging may crop up. • Temporary Employees Temporary employees are those employed for a specific job on a short-term contract. This alternative is used when existing employees are unable to do the job due to some specific reasons. 7 Temporary employees are very helpful in reducing the excess workload in an organisation. (ii) Factors to Consider whenAttracting People. Financial Constraint • Has any provision been made for in the budget? • Cost of Recruitment , Pay packets.... • May be affected by the state of the national economy, that is, are we in a recession, crisis, etc... What Types of Candidates. • Age group, field of specialisation, experience ... Legal Framework • What does the law say? • Discrimination by reason of race, place of origin, political opinion, creed or sex and colour. Corporate Image of the Company • How people see the company? (iii) Internal Recruitment Sources Very often, a vacancy provides an opportunity to promote people from within the organisation. 8 Advantages • The organisation is familiar with the strengths, weaknesses, performances, skills, expertise and attitude of the applicants. • The applicants have a better understanding of the organisation and its culture. • The filling of vacancies proves to be cheaper and faster. • Training and development are already in place. Disadvantages • No new talent is brought in the organisation. • Conflict may occur amongst employees due to frustration. • Recruitment cost may be high. (iv) External Recruitment Sources External recruitment sources are also beneficial to organisations and present new opportunities. Advantages • Specialised upper level positions often requires that organisations look for external resources since such skills may not exist internally. • Brings new blood, talen
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