Training is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of
It means investing in people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make best
use of their natural abilities,
Development, on the other hand, is argued to be directed towards creating ongoing learning
opportunities so that employees can improve over a longer period of time and learn skills other
than those required in the current job.
Training Related Concepts
The process whereby individuals acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes through experience,
reflection, study or instruction.
A process and a series of activities which aim at enabling an individual to assimilate and develop
knowledge, skills, values and understanding.
Education would mean any long term learning activity aimed at preparing individuals for a
variety of roles in society; as citizens, workers and members of family.
Development can be seen as any learning which is directed towards future needs rather than
present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance.
The focus of development tends to be primarily on an organisation’s future manpower
requirements, and secondly on the growth needs of individuals in the workplace through training.
1 Purpose of Training
Training means investing in human resources to enable them to perform better and empowering
them to optimise the use of their abilities and capabilities.
The aim of training is to help an organisation achieve its objectives by adding value to the people
The purpose of training is to:
• Develop the skills and competences of employees and improve their performance;
• Give employees the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to grow within the
• Prepare employees for future assignments;
• Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs, transfer and promotion.
Importance for Training
(i) Improves morale of employees
Training helps the employee to get job security and job satisfaction.
The more satisfied the employee is and the greater is his morale, the more he will contribute to
organizational success and the lesser will be employee absenteeism and turnover.
(ii) Less supervision
Awell trained employee will be well acquainted with the job and will need less of supervision.
Thus, there will be less wastage of time and efforts.
(iii) Fewer accidents
Errors are likely to occur if the employees lack knowledge and skills required for doing a
The more trained an employee is, the less are the chances of committing accidents in job and the
more proficient the employee becomes.
2 (iv) Chances of promotion
Employees acquire skills and efficiency during training.
They become more eligible for promotion. They become an asset for the organization.
(v) Increased productivity
Training improves efficiency and productivity of employees.
Well trained employees show both quantity and quality performance.
There is less wastage of time, money and resources if employees are properly trained.
Disadvantages in Training Employees
(i) Once fully trained, staff may leave for better paid jobs
(ii) Financial cost of training may be high
(iii) Work time is lost when staff are being trainedQuality of training must be high for it to
have a positive effect
(iv) This level of over-training can become very stressful to the employee.And when
employees are stressed, job performance goes down.
(v) During extensive training sessions, employees may become bored and lose interest in
what they're learning. Once an employee loses interest, much of the information
being taught will not be retained.
There should be a well-defined training and development policy statement which sets out what
the organisation is prepared to in terms of training and development of its employees.
The policy must specify the amount of money to be invested on training and development, the
approach to be adopted, whether training will take place within the organisation or have recourse
to external specialised organisations.
3 The training policy will also provide a framework within which training will operate that is,
guidelines on the amount of training that should be given to each category of employees as well
as managerial, professional and technical cadres.
SystematicApproach to Training
(i) Identify Training Needs
The process of identifying exactly what training is required to fill the gap is called “Training
Needs Analysis” (TNA).
The function of TNA is to research and analyse the nature of a particular job or role in a
systematic way to identify the gap between job/role performance and the future requirements of
4 An identified gap between present and future performance requirements assist in determining the
training need, providing job/role holder with the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to
meet the requirements of future performance.
Levels of analysis for determining training needs
• The Individual Level
The needs analysis at an individual level will consist of:
Identifying the person specification and comparing it with job specification.
Identifying critical incidents that have recurred and caused stress over a period of time.
Identifying individual strengths and weaknesses and finding ways of developing the
strengths and minimising weaknesses.
• The Organisational Level
The needs of the organisation will be analysed based on the following:
Change in business strategy.
Change in organisation structure.
Development and trends in the market.
Level of competition.
• The Job Level
The needs analysis at the job level will consist of:
1. Identifying the job description and changes that have taken place.
2. Analysing the information from the person specification to know the kind of person