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MANA 298
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Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124 UNIT 3 JOB ANALYSIS AND JOB DESCRIPTION Unit Structure 3.0 Overview 3.1 Learning Outcomes 3.2 Introduction 3.3 Definitions 3.4 Purpose of Job Analysis 3.5 Uses of Job Analysis 3.6 Job Description 3.7 Job Specification 3.7.1 Uses of Job Specification 3.8 Methods of Job analysis 3.9 Summary 3.0 OVERVIEW This Unit introduces the activity of job analysis along with its purpose and importance in organisations. Job description and job specification are also be discussed. This Unit also discussed how job analysis is an important tool in the process of matching the individual with the job. Unit 3 1 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124 3.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Unit, you should be able to do the following: 1. Define job analysis, job description and job specification. 2. Explain the purpose of job analysis. 3. State the reasons for conducting job analysis. 4. Describe the methods of job analysis. 3.2 INTRODUCTION Today’s working environment is changing so rapidly that the need for a sound job analysis system is very important. The detailed information collected in job analysis may result in an organisation’s redesigning its jobs to improve productivity and motivation. Those authorising the job analysis activity and those carrying it out need to be fully aware of the time and cost commitment, as well as the nature of any changes that may occur based on job analysis results. Job analysis should be assigned to someone from the HR department with enough work experience to understand the organisation’s culture. Job analysis has the authority to secure the organisation’s commitment in the process. 3.3 DEFINITIONS Job Analysis is the systematic process of determining the skills, duties and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organisation. It allows managers to categorise work so that Human Resource Planning can identify needs more specifically. It also ensures that all required duties are assigned to people in specific jobs. Job analysis is the systematic collection and recording of information about a job’s purpose and major duties, conditions under which it is performed, required contacts with others, and Unit 3 2 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124 knowledge, skills and abilities needed to effectively perform the job. This information can be collected in many ways, including observing individuals and their superiors, having individuals keep diaries of job activities, and/or distributing questionnaires to be completed by job incumbents and their superiors (Levine 1983; Milkovich & Boudreau,1988). 3.4 PURPOSE OF JOB ANALYSIS The main purpose of job analysis is to prepare job description and job specification which, in turn, helps to recruit the right quality of employees into the organisation. Job analysis also intends to document the requirements of a job and the job performed. It provides a summary of a job’s duties and responsibilities, its relationship with other jobs, the knowledge and skills required and working conditions under which the job is done. The purpose of job analysis is to obtain answers to six important questions as listed below: (i) What physical and mental task does the worker accomplish? (ii) When is the job to be completed? (iii) Where is the job to be accomplished? (iv) How does the worker do the job? (v) Why is the job done? (vi) What qualifications are needed to perform the job? Unit 3 3 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124 Activity 1 (i) Describe, in your own words, your understanding of the term “Job Analysis”. (ii) Discuss the purpose of job analysis in your organisation. You may refer to your own case. (iii) List the items found in a job analysis report of a task in your organisation or an organisation of your choice. Unit 3 4 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124 3.5 USES JOB ANALYSIS Job analysis is a basic tool in human resource management because information about the work performed serves many purposes. Data derived from job analysis can have an impact on virtually every aspect of Human Resource Management. A major use of job analysis data is found in the area of human resource planning. Each job requires different knowledge, skills, and ability levels (KSA’s) and effective human resource planning must take into consideration each job requirements. Some common uses of job Analysis data includes: • Information gathered about qualification often proves to be beneficial in identifying training and development needs. • Job requires a particular knowledge, skill or ability. Job content permits tailoring training programs to actual qualification required to perform the jobs. • Job related interviews and recruitment. • Job Analysis can tell a trained interviewer the necessary requirements for success on the job. • Allows interviewer to assess the fit between the candidate and the job. • Also allows the candidates to decide if they are really interested. 3.6 JOB DESCRIPTION The results of job analysis are used as a tool to develop job description. Job description is a statement of the duties, working conditions
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