Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124
UNIT 6 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
6.1 Learning Outcomes
6.4 Training Related Concepts
6.5 Purpose of Training
6.6 Training Policy
6.7 Systematic Approach to Training
6.7.1 Identify Training Needs
6.7.2 Design the Training
22.214.171.124 Selection of Trainees
126.96.36.199 Establishing the Training Goals, Aims and Objectives
188.8.131.52 Training Program Content and Sequence
184.108.40.206 Establish Training Organisations
220.127.116.11 The Location of Training
18.104.22.168 Selection of Training Techniques
22.214.171.124 Selection and Training of Trainers
6.7.3 Implementation of Training Programme
6.7.4 Assessing the Effectiveness of Training
Unit 6 1 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124
This Unit on Training and Development provides an insight of a well planned and properly
designed training. In addition, the evaluation of training is discussed.
6.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this Unit, you should be able to do the following:
1. Differentiate between “training” and “development”.
2. State the purpose of training.
3. Describe your understanding of “training needs analysis”.
4. Explain the systematic approach to training
5. Explain the importance of assessing the effectiveness of training.
Training and Development is an integral part of the Employee Resourcing Strategy. Today, no
organisation is spared from the pressure of globalisation and everyone is challenged by the speed
of change, technological advancement and customer expectations. “Training of employees is not
an option; it is an intrinsic part of the practice of HRM and is an investment in people”,
(Keep,1989). Training should be an ongoing process.
Unit 6 2 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124
“Training is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of
(Mathis & Jackson, 2005).
Training is generally defined “as a systematic effort to modify and develop knowledge, skills and
attitudes through learning experiences to achieve effective performance in an activity or range
of activities,”(Garavan et al,1995).
Training is a systematic modification of behaviour through learning, which occurs as a result of
education, instruction, and development and planned experience. It means investing in people to
enable them to perform better and to empower them to make best use of their natural abilities,
Training may be defined as the “planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning
of job-related competencies. These competencies include knowledge, skills or behaviour that are
critical for successful job performance” (Noe et al, 2008: 267).
Grobler et al (2006: 300) identify training as being task-oriented and focused on improving the
learner’s job performance. Development, on the other hand, is argued to be directed towards
“creating ongoing learning opportunities so that employees can improve over a longer period of
time and learn skills other than those required in the current job”, (Kleynhans et al, 2007: 117).
Snell & Bohlander’s (2006: 282) distinction between the concepts of training and development
focuses on the orientation of the learning intervention. It is argued that training “tends to be
more narrowly focused and oriented towards short term performance concerns” (Snell &
Bohlander, 2006: 282) while development is future-oriented and focuses on “broadening an
individual’s skills for future responsibilities” (Snell & Bohlander, 2006: 282).
Unit 6 3 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124
“Training is planned process to modify skills, knowledge and attitude (SKA) through learning
experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. In work
situations, its purpose is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and
future needs of the organisation”, (Beardwell-Holden,1994).
As per the definition of Beardwell-Holden 1994, the three broad components of training are to
modify skills, knowledge and attitude.
• Skills – “a skill is the learned ability to bring about a pre-determined result with
maximum certainty and minimum time and effort.”
6.4 TRAINING RELATED CONCEPTS
It is necessary to distinguish training from closely related concepts of:
• Learning – The process whereby individuals acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes
through experience, reflection, study or instruction.
• Education – A process and a series of activities which aim at enabling an individual to
assimilate and develop knowledge, skills, values and understanding that are not simply
related to a narrow field of activity but allow a broad range of problems to be defined and
solved. Education would mean any long term learning activity aimed at preparing
individuals for a variety of roles in society; as citizens, workers and members of family.
Unit 6 4 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124
• Development – Development can be seen as any learning which is directed towards
future needs rather than present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth
than immediate performance. The focus of development tends to be primarily on an
organisation’s future manpower requirements, and secondly on the growth needs of
individuals in the workplace through training.
(i) How is training defined within your organisation?
(ii) Differentiate between “training” and “development’.
(iii) How does learning take place in your organisation?
Unit 6 5 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124
6.5 PURPOSE OF TRAINING
Training means investing in human resources to enable them to perform better and empowering
them to optimise the use of their abilities and capabilities. The aim of training is to help an
organisation achieve its objectives by adding value to the people it employs. The purpose of
training are to:
Develop the skills and competences of employees and improve their performance;
Give employees the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to grow within the
Prepare employees for future assignments;
Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs, transfer and promotion.
6.6 TRAINING POLICY
First of all, there should be a well-defined training and development policy statement which sets
out what the organisation is prepared to in terms of training and development of its employees.
The policy must specify the amount of money to be invested on training and development, the
approach to be adopted, whether training will take place within the organisation or have recourse
to external specialised organisations, employees career development and management
development schemes. The training policy will also provide a framework within which training
will operate that is, guidelines on the amount of training that should be given to each category of
employees as well as managerial, professional and technical cadres.
Unit 6 6 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124
(i) Discuss the purpose of training in your organisation.
(ii) Discuss the training policy of your organisation.
6.7 SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO TRAINING
The systematic approach to training is a model by which all training events are designed to meet
defined needs. It is planned and provided by people who know how to train and the impact of
training is carefully evaluated.
Unit 6 7 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124
Figure 6.1: The Training Process
6.7.1 Identify Training Needs
The process of identifying exactly what training is required to fill the gap is called “Training
Needs Analysis” (TNA). The function of TNA is to research and analyse the nature of a
particular job or role in a systematic way to identify the gap between job/role performance and
the future requirements of the job/role. An identified gap between present and future
performance requirements assist in determining the training need, providing job/role holder with
the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to meet the requirements of future performance.
Unit 6 8 Employee Resourcing - LLC 4124
Levels of analysis for determining training needs
There are three levels of analysis for determining the needs that training can fulfill, namely :
i) The Individual Level.
ii) The Organisational Level.
iii) The Job Level.
i) The Individual Level
The needs analysis at an individual level will consist of:
1. Identifying the person specification and comparing it with job specification.
2. Identifying critical incidents that have recurred and caused stress over a peri