Employee Resourcing – LLC 4124
UNIT 4 RECRUITMENT
4.1 Learning Outcomes
4.2 Introduction and Definitions
4.3 Aims of Recruitment
4.4 Recruitment Policy
4.5 The Recruitment Process
4.5.1 Alternatives to Recruitment
4.5.2 Factors to consider when Attracting People
4.5.3 Internal Recruitment Sources
4.5.4 External Recruitment Sources
4.5.5 Recruiting Individuals
4.6 Person Specification
4.7 Recruitment Methods
4.8 Factors Influencing Recruitment
4.9 Internet Recruiting
Following the activity of Human Resource Planning, are the activities of Recruitment and
Selection. In this Unit, the process of attracting applicants to the organisation, will be
elaborated and thoroughly discussed. This process is one of the main important functions
of Human Resource Management.
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4.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this Unit, you should be able to do the following:
1. Explain your understanding of the term “recruitment”.
2. State the aims of recruitment.
3. Describe the recruitment process.
4. State the alternatives to recruitment.
5. Identify the recruitment methods.
6. Analyse the factors influencing recruitment.
7. Explain Internet Recruitment.
4.2 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS
Recruitment of new employees in organisations is of utmost importance as recruits are
considered as the injection of new blood to increase the life of organisations. However,
mechanistic organisations may become an important asset, yet human resources will
always remain the most important asset. It is therefore mandatory that organisations go
about the process of attracting the right quantity and quality of people with appropriate
qualifications, skills and experience. In addition to these requirements, organisations
must not overlook the legal aspects in recruitment practices, that is, due consideration
must be given to women and disabled persons as well as no discrimination by reason of
colour, creed, race, place of origin and political opinion should exist.
It is very important, right from the very outset, to make the distinction between
recruitment and selection.
Recruitment is the first part of the process of filling a vacancy. It includes the process of
finding potential candidates, from different sources, to carry out the tasks and making
contact with those candidates by attracting applications from them.
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Selection is that part of the recruitment process when the organisation decides who to
employ after having assessed the candidates by various means.
For the sake of this unit, we shall concentrate on recruitment. Selection will be dealt with
in the next unit.
Recruitment can be defined as ;
“A process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers and with
appropriate qualifications and attitudes and encouraging them to apply for jobs in the
organisations” (Armstrong, 1999).
Noe et al. (2008:202) define recruitment as “... the practice or activity carried on by the
organisation with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential
Snell and Bohlander (2007:172) define recruitment as “... the process of locating
potential individuals who might join an organisation and encouraging them to apply for
existing or anticipated job openings”.
It is important to highlight that recruitment is an activity that is related to, and influenced
by, the human resource planning activity. If the organisation identifies a labour shortage
for the long-term, management may wish to go for recruitment, while for the short-term,
there are different alternatives to recruitment which will be discussed in details in section
(i) Discuss the importance of recruitment in your organisation.
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(ii) How does “recruitment” differ from ‘selection’.
4.3 AIMS OF RECRUITMENT
The effects of globalisation and world economic recession have forced organisations to
revisit their recruitment strategies. In order to survive in this competitive environment,
organisations have to optimise the use of their available human resources and obtain and
retain the right quantity and quality of new employees.
The key aims of recruitment are summarised as follows:
1 Attracting a group of potential candidates for existing vacancies.
2 Ensure that fair means and processes are used for all recruitment activities.
3 All recruitment activities should contribute to the organisation’s goals and
objectives and thus, project a positive organisational image to those who come in
contact with it.
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4.4 RECRUITMENT POLICY
An organisation’s recruitment policy outlines the objectives of the recruitment process
and provides guidelines as to how the recruitment process should be carried out (Nel. et
al, 2008: 222).
Organisational recruitment policies may be characterised by a number of factors as listed
• Internal vs External Recruiting
A policy of internal recruiting provides greater opportunities for the advancement of the
organisation’s existing employees (Noe et al, 2008:203). It is a source of motivation for
better performance, greater efficiency and effectiveness. However, it may be argued that
external recruiting brings new blood, innovative ideas and greater peer respect in the
organisation. At times, recruiting from outside the organisation becomes inevitable since
no suitable candidate is available from within.
• Extrinsic and Intrinsic Reward
Pay is an important job characteristic for almost all applicants. A ‘market leader’
approach to pay involves an organisation to remunerate its employees higher than the
market average and thus has a distinct advantage in recruiting (e.g. paying higher rates
for night shift workers). Organisations that compete for job applicants based on pay do so
through offering both extrinsic financial rewards as well as intrinsic rewards.
• Employment -at-Will Policies
Employment -at-will policies state that either an employer or an employee can terminate
the employment relationship at any time, regardless of cause (Noe et al, 2008:205).
This policy may be at the detriment of both the employer and the employee and
depending on the country in which the company is operating, for example, in Mauritius
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itself, such a policy may be in contradiction with the country’s labour legislation.
However, some companies, have stringent policies which formally lay out the procedures
to follow in case an employee wish to appeal against a decision to terminate his/her
• Image Advertising
Organisations may have a policy of advertising to promote themselves as a good place of
work (Noe et al, 2008:206).
Such advertising is very important for organisations which do business within highly
competitive labour markets and they want to be an “employer of choice”. For example, in
Mauritius, we have the British American Insurance (BAI), Ireland Blyth Limited, Harel
Mallac among others, that do much image advertising to promote themselves as a good
place to work.
• Employment Equity
Employment Equity policy serves to prevent discrimination in recruitment practices and
provides equal opportunities to all citizens of the country.
In Mauritius, there are the Constitution, Sex Discrimination Act and the Equal
Opportunity Act which guarantee the rights of the citizens of Mauritius and the latter can
go to Court in case they feel there has been discrimination of any sort in the recruitment
• Persons – Organisation Fit
Some organisations follow a recruitment policy which provides for optimum fit between
the new employee and the organisation’s culture.
In Mauritius, this is done usually in the private sector when high calibre officers are
required to manage a company. However, at lower level, the recruitment policy promotes
the employment of diverse individuals so as to enrich the composition of the workforce.
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(i) Discuss the aims of recruitment in your organisation.
(ii) What is the recruitment policy of your organisation?
(iii) Discuss the factors characterising recruitment policies in your organisation.
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4.5 THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS
The recruitment process stems from the Human Resource Planning stage. Whenever a
shortage of human resource has been identified, management has to take necessary steps
to ensure the timely supply of labour to fill the identified gap. The recruitment process is
illustrated in the following diagram.
Human Resource Planning
Alternatives to Recruitment
Internal Methods External Methods
Figure 4.1 – The Recruitment Process
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4.5.1 Alternatives to Recruitment
Once a shortage of employees has been identified, the first thing to consider is whether
there are alternatives to recruitment. The alternatives are listed hereunder:-
Overtime is when the actual employees are asked to perform extra hours at work
at an agreed rate. This is, in fact, a source of motivation for most employees.
However, this alternative cannot be taken as a long-term solution because of
issues like fatigue, pace of work and a substantial overall decrease in output.
Subcontracting involves an agreement with a specialised firm to perform the work
in part or in full upon payment as agreed by both parties. In such a contract, the
external service provider has a high level of commitment as regards to quality and
timeliness in fulfilling the contract.
This alternative is relatively costly for organisations which have to be competitive
and problems like lack of sense of belonging may crop up.
3. Temporary Employees
Temporary employees are those employed for a specific job on a short-term
contract. This alternative is used when existing employees are unable to do the job
due to some specific reasons. Temporary employees are very helpful in reducing
the excess workload in an organisation.
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4.5.2 Factors to Consider when Attracting People.
- Has any provision been made for in the budget?
- Cost of Recruitment , Pay packets....
- May be affected by the state of the national economy, that is, are we in a
recession, crisis, etc...
What Types of Candidates.
- Age group, field of specialisation, experience ...
- What does the law say?
- Discrimination by reason of race, place of origin, political opinion, creed or sex
Corporate Image of the Company
- How people see the company?
4.5.3 Internal Recruitment Sources
Very often, a vacancy provides an opportunity to promote people from within the
organisation. Internal recruitment sources present the organisation with a number of both
advantages and disadvantages which are summarised below:
• The organisation is familiar with the strengths, weaknesses, performances, skills,
expertise and attitude of the applicants.
• The applicants have a better understanding of the organisation and its cul