The marketing planning process involves forging a plan for a firm's marketing activities. A
marketing plan can also pertain to a specific product, as well as to an organization's
overall marketing strategy. Generally speaking, an organization's marketing planning process is
derived from its overall business strategy. Thus, when top management are devising the firm's
strategic direction or mission, the intended marketing activities are incorporated into this plan.
There are several levels of marketing objectives within an organization. The senior management
of a firm would formulate a general business strategy for a firm. However, this general business
strategy would be interpreted and implemented in different contexts throughout the firm.
The field of marketing strategy considers the total marketing environment and its impacts on a
company or product or service. The emphasis is on "an in depth understanding of the market
environment, particularly the competitors and customers
A given firm may offer numerous products or services to a marketplace, spanning numerous and
sometimes wholly unrelated industries. Accordingly, a plan is required in order to effectively
manage such products. Evidently, a company needs to weigh up and ascertain how to utilize its
finite resources. For example, a start-up car manufacturing firm would face little success should
it attempt to rival Toyota, Ford, Nissan, Chevrolet, or any other large global car maker.
Moreover, a product may be reaching the end of its life-cycle. Thus, the issue of divest, or a
ceasing of production, may be made. Each scenario requires a unique marketing strategy. Listed
below are some prominent marketing strategy models.
A marketing strategy differs from a marketing tactic in that a strategy looks at the longer term
view of the products, goods, or services being marketed. A tactic refers to a shorter term view.
Therefore, the mailing of a postcard or sales letter would be a tactic, but a campaign of several
postcards, sales letters, or telephone calls would be a strategy.
The word "brand" is derived from the Old Norse brandr meaning "to burn." It refers to the
practice of producers burning their mark (or brand) onto their products.
The oldest generic Brand, which is in continuous use in India since the Vedic period (ca. 1100
B.C.E to 500 B.C.E), is known as 'Chyawanprash', an herbal paste consumed for its purported
health benefits and attributed to a revered Rishi (seer) named Chyawan. This brand was
developed at Dhosi Hill in North India, on an extinct Volcanic Hill.
The Italians were among the first to use brands, in the form of watermarks on paper in the
1200s. Blind Stamps, hallmarks and silver maker's marks are all types of brand.
Although connected with the history of trademarks and including earlier examples which could
be deemed "protobrands" (such as the marketing puns of the "Vesuvinum" wine jars found
at Pompeii), brands in the field of mass-marketing originated in the 19th century with the advent
of packaged goods. Industrialization moved the production of many household items, such
as soap, from local communities to centralized factories. When shipping their items, the factories
would literallybrand their logo or insignia on the barrels used, extending the meaning of "brand"
to that of trademark.
Bass & Company, the British brewery, claims their red triangle brand was the world's first
trademark. Lyle’s Golden Syrup makes a similar claim, having been named as Britain's oldest
brand, with its green and gold packaging having remained almost unchanged since 1885.
Another example comes from Antiche Fornaci Giorgi in Italy, whose bricks are stamped or
carved with the same proto-logo since 1731, as found in Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. Cattle were branded long before this. The term "maveri