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Lecture 1

POLI 205 Lecture 1: POLI205 Intl Relations

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Concordia University
Political Sc
POLI 205
Ronald Behringer

POLI205 Dr. Ronald Behringer st th Missed 1 class Jan 11 Missed what is IR Class 2 th January 11 2016 Theoretical Paradigms 1 Realism - The dominant paradigm for the study of IR - The Paradigm of realism was born with Hans Morgenthau’s book o Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace (1948) - Realism explains international relations in terms of Power - Relations between states are characterized by power politics - Realist claim that they look at the world in terms of how it really is, rather than how it ought to be. - The realist are interested in the causes of war and how we can achieve peace - For classical realist, the cause of war lies in human nature. - People are viewed as selfish and self centered; people think of themselves first and take care of themselves firs - This view of human nature provides the foundation for realism - Human nature is by nature self interest 3 Propositions of Realism 1. STATES are the most important actors in international relations. (States are Primary Actors) 2. States are RATIONAL and UNITARY actors a. Since a state is an aggregation of human beings, realist also view a state as being as self-interested as humans are. b. The state acts rationally; the state does what it determined to be in its national interest c. The primary national interest is the survival of the state. *All leaders must access cost and benefits and think rationally enough to have the best interest of your country and how will a state/ country survive? With power the country with the most power will survive… DID you know that Texas and Vermont were independent country but it did not last long hence Texas 9 years and Vermont 3 years because of lack of power… - The state is a Unitary Actor in that the national government acts on behalf of everyone within the country. Only the national decision-makers matter when analyzing foreign policy-making. The realist would say we are inconsequential and we don’t matter.. because the only thing that matter is the government… Realist don’t care about the country they care who is the leader what are their policy analyse it and access the issue. Hence it make the world an easy place to analyze A.K.A Unitary Actor - Always going toward the best interest… - When u have all bad options is u choose the less bad option to maximize your power because all that counts is maintaining power… 3. States act in the context of an Anarchic International System. a. Since there is no world government to maintain order, states have to take care of themselves in order to survive b. The international system is a self-help system c. How to have power = build an army might have enemy’s but will not be bossed around… *Only 9 countries in the world have nuclear weapon… Nuclear weapon is good as defensive tactic but is not a good tool to use because its suicide if u use nuclear weapon someone will use it on u… U don’t need nuclear power to be power… Ex: The Vatican City is one of the strongest nations in the world… they use persuasion and have the Swiss guard to protect them… - If Italy wants to remove the Vatican City it will take a few minutes however when the pope speaks billion of people around the world listen… REALIST IS ALL ABOUT MILITARY POWER – U NEED THEM GUNS, TANKS AND FIGHTER JETS BOY - States need to maximize their power (especially military power) relative to other states. - Military issues are the most important. - Other sources of power (e.g., economic resource, social) are only important if they are fungible. - Fungibility = convertibility of non-military sources of power into military power Funny term = Fungible, PURE INTL REL. GEEK TO USE… FUNGIBLE = CONVERTIBILITY Japan is not strong military however, if they need to have a military they can they are strong military, economically, technology wise and more hence they can if they want invest in military. Most leaders in the world are REALIST… - How can we achieve peace in an anarchic, self-help international system? - Realist would answer that peace can be achieved through either hegemony or a balance of power between states. - The realist approach has evolved since classical realism. 1) Neorealism also known as: (Structural Realism) a. Rather than being driven by human nature, states respond rationally to changes in the distribution of power in the international system. b. The founder of neorealism is Kenneth Waltz. Structural realism refers to the structural components. Hence, forget about human nature and focus on the structure and the distribution of power… If the USA disperses and a few states become independent the power will dissolve and their will be a change of power hence, then border country can try to take over states… 2) Neoclassical Realism a. States responses to systemic forces are conditioned by state-level variables (e.g., leader’ perceptions domestic politics, political culture, etc.). b. A leading neoclassical realist is Norrin Ripsman • Differs from realism no black box instead u have to access the box and understand what influences the nation In order to have a certain mentality and reason for influencing etc… • They are different due to culture and no two nations are the same… Theoretical Paradigms 2 Liberalism - Liberals unit of analysis is the individual, not the state. - Classical liberals believe that human nature is essentially good or altruistic, therefore, people are capable of mutual aid and collaboration - With sufficient education and democratic institutions in place, human nature can become the basis for peaceful and cooperative relationships. - Contrary to realist, liberals emphasize that multiple actors are important in IR, such as individual decision-makers, NGOs and international institutions. - Furthermore, economic and social issues may sometimes be as important as military issues. ***(keep in mind I think that liberalism is a reply to realism) pretty sure… - Realist make assumptions on the other hand liberalism will never make assumptions and say that state interest is shaped by groups and people within the state and therefore it is essential to understand the black box… - Liberals do not assume that the state Is a unitary and rational actor. - State behavior is shaped by internal bargaining between actors within the state. - According to liberals, we must look at the psychological motives of decision-makers in order to understand foreign policy. - Liberals emphasize that international institutions, greater interdependence and the spread of democracy will produce peaceful relations between states. Neoliberal Institutionalism - Neoliberal institutionalism (or neoliberalism) emerges in the 1980s as a critique of neorealism. (*Answers are in the titles!!!) Assumptions of neoliberalism: 1- Anarchy in the international system influences states actions. 2- The state is the primary actor of importance in the international system 3- States are both rational actors and unitary actors - These assumptions make neoliberalism very different from classical liberalism - But neoliberals also differ from neorealist, in that neoliberals are optimistic about the prospects for international cooperation, whereas neorealist are very pessimistic. 3) International institutions are independent actors that facilitate international cooperation. Number 1 norm in international affairs is do not intervene in other nations domestic affairs this is respected 99% of the time… Marxism - The unit of analysis for realists is the state, for liberals is the individual and for Marxist is class. - Marxist emphasize that transnational class coalitions are the primary actors in international relations. Economic classes from close ties across national boundaries. - Contrary to liberals, Marxist view the global economic system as exploitative in nature. - Similar to realist, Marxists suggest that human nature tends towards self-interest and the need to dominate others. - But unlike the realists, Marxists believe that if society was based on a more equal distribution of wealth, the aggressive and negative aspects of human nature might be reforms and perfects (missing notes) - Socialism calls for the redistribution of wealth toward the workers who produce that wealth - Socialist advocate state ownership of capital, rather than private ownership, so that the accumulation of wealth is controlled by the state, which can distribute it equally. - Democratic (evolutionary) socialists believe in building socialism by participating in the democratic political system. - Marxists are revolutionary socialists - They argue that the Proletariat (industrial factory workers) will develop class consciousness that they have been exploited, and will revolt against the bourgeoisie (the owners of capital who make money from their investments), who have been exploiting them. - After workers seize the state, they will use it to redistribute the wealth equally to the workers who produced the wealth - According to Karl Marx’s theory of dialectical materialism, the world is evolving in stages: - From primitive communism to slavery to feudalism to capitalism to socialism to communism - The transition from one stage to the next is often prompted by the struggle between economic classes. - In the final stage, communism, everyone would equal and the state would wither away since it would become unnecessary. ***did you know: *** - The seigneurial system was an institutional form of land distribution established in New France in 1627 and officially abolished in 1854. In New France, 80 per cent of the population lived in rural areas governed by this system of land distribution and occupation. - It then evolved into capitalism… World-System Approach – Immanuel Wallerstein - The world is divided into three groups of states: 1. Core: advanced industrialized states which produce mainly manufactured goods. 2. Semi-periphery: states where some manufacturing occurs (e.g., the NICs). 3. Periphery: developing states which produce mainly raw materials and agricultural products. - The peripheral states export raw materials to the core states in exchange for manufactured products. - The terms of trade favor the states in the core, therefore the core is exploiting the periphery. - The peripheral states will not revolt against the core states, because there is the possibility for them to join the semi-periphery. The semi-periphery acts as a political buffer between the core and the periphery All capitalist are exploiters look at Canada it is built out of exploiting…. Constructivism - Constructivism is based on the claim that our understanding of reality is socially constructed - Constructivist examine how ideas and identities are created, how they change, and how they shape the manner in which states act in international relations. Examples of socially constructed phenomena: - Anarchy, slavery, warfare, democracy, liberty. *the above are not tangible elements and cannot be touch it is socially constructed concepts… Anarchy is a socially constructed concept…. – Ronald Behringer… We constructed a world of fear instead of peace.. - The ideas, values and identities of individuals and groups are key to understanding the nature and course of international relations. - People’s ideas, values and identities are constructed by their group affiliations. - once created, ideas are transmitted intersubjective through communication. - Ideas become reified (i.e., real objects), and thereby affect international relations. Feminism - Feminists challenge the androcentric (male-centered) nature of IR. - Most IR scholars are male, therefore concepts and theories have been devised from a male perspective. - IR is characterized by patriarchy (male dominance). Patriarchy permeates every domestic and international institution, making them biased toward masculine values and behaviour. - Gender is defined as a social construction that indicated what it means to be masculine or feminine. - While sex refers to the anatomical and biological differences between males and females, gender refers to societal norms and expectations regarding appropriate male and female behaviour. - Gender roles are socially constructed, and are not necessarily natural. Class 3 January 25 2017-01-24 World politics and Economics, 1648 – 1945 - The system of nation – states that we have today dates back to 1648 and the treaty of Westphalia which ended the thirty years war(1618 – 48) - The treaty establish the principle of sovereignty, which means that a national leader could decide domestic policies and issues without outside interference. - The Westphalian system features sovereign nation-states. Prior to the Westphalian system, churches had considerable power and influence on Europeans. - The birth of nation-states transferred peoples loyalties from religious authorities to political authorities. [People back then didn’t have a sense of patriotism . Hence, they had more loyalty to the pope or religious status moreover] - Despite the treaty of Westphalia, Europe did not experience peace for long - Three major ward broke out in the 18 century: o The war of Spanish succession (1701-14) France and Spain vs. Austria Britain, Netherlands, Portugal and others o The war of the Austrian succession (1740-48) Prussia, France, and Spain vs Britain and Austria). o The Seven years war (French and Indian war, 1756 – 63: Austria, France and Russia vs Prussia and Britain). [French vs British on the plain of Abraham] ▪ Prussia and British won… - The American war of Independence (1775-83) led to the founding of the United states of America. - The French Revolution erupted in 1789. King Louis XVI was ousted and France became a republic in 1792. - The French Revolution introduced the idea of Nationalism, where popular loyalty would focus on the nation rather than on the monarch. - But in the wake of France’s domestic disorder, Napoleon Bonaparte led a coup in 1799 and seized power. - In 1804, the French Senate proclaimed him Emperor Napoleon 1. - Unlike the limited wars of the past, The Napoleonic wars (1803-15) featured the complete submission and occupation of defeated countries. - France would dominate continental Europe until,1814, when the French forces collapsed from fighting on two fronts (Russian and the Iberian Peninsula) at the same time. - In 1815, the treaty of Vienna between the great powers of Europe (Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain and France) established the concert of Europe, whereby the great powers would cooperate to maintain peace and order in Europe. - The Quadruple Alliance of Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria agreed that a French attack on one of them constitutes an attack on all, thereby creating a collective security arrangement - Between 1858 and 1861, the Italian city-states were unified as the Kingdom of Italy. - Led the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Prussia fought three quick wars against Denmark (1864), Austria (1866) and France (1870-71) to unify the German states as the German Empire in 1871 under the Prussian King Wilhelm I. - The Bismarckian system of alliances would keep Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia and Italy together while isolating France. - But the Bismarckian system fell apart due to clashed of interest between Austria- Hungary and Russia in the Balkans. - Beginning in England in the late eighteenth century, the Industrial Revolution transformed manufacturing through the use of mass production and interchangeable parts. - Steam power made production faster and more efficient - The development of railroads, the telegraph and steamships promoted trade and communications all around the world - The industrial revolutions stimulated the globalization of the world economy - But Industrialization spread unevenly. While England and Prussia industrialized rapidly, France, Austria, and Russia industrialized slowly. - Britain became a global hegemon that promoted free trade around the world. - There were several factors which led to the First World War: 1) The economic and military rise of Germany 2) The rigid system of alliances after the Bismarckian alliance system: a. Germany & Austria-Hungary, France & Russia, Britain & Japan, Britain & France b. The main objective of European alliances changed from containment of France and Russia to containment of Germany. c. Two hostile alliances emerges: the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy) vs the Triple entente (Britain, France, Russian). 3) Nationalist movements were perceived as threats to the sovereignty of Austria- Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. a. World War I started when Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serb nationalist in Sarajevo. b. Austria declared war on Serbia, Russia on Austria, Germany on Russia, then France on Germany. - The ottoman empire and Bulgaria joined Germany and Austria-Hungary as the Central Powers. - Italy remained neutral and later joined the Triple Entente. - The United States entered the War in 1917, after the deliberate torpedoing of the passenger ship Lusitania by a German U-boat. - After the November 1917, socialist revolution, Russia withdrew from the war in March 1918, surrendering one-third of its European territory to Germany - 32 countries from six continents fought in the First World War - World war I killed nearly 10 million soldiers (64,944 Canadians) & 7 million civilians (200 Canadians.) - Nearly 21 million people were injured. - The 1919 treaty of Versailles was very punitive. - The Ottoman Empire was dismantled and Austria & Hungary each gave up over 70% of their territory. - Germany was stripped of its overseas colonies, surrendered territory in Europe, and was assessed 33$ billion in reparations. - The democratic Weimar Republic was instituted in Germany - U.S. President Woodrow Wilson’s proposal for a League of Nations became a reality. But the U.S. never joined due to the Senate’s refusal to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. - The 1929 stock market crash launched the Great Depression globally. - Countries erected protectionist trade barriers and international trade slowed drastically. - Germany renounced payments of war reparations and France and Britain defaulted on their debts to the U.S. - In 1933, Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany after the National Socialist (Nazi) party won elections. - In 1938, Nazi Germany forced Austria to unite with Germany and annexed the Sudetenland, a German-populated region of Czechoslovakia - Weary of war, the leaders of Britain, France, and Italy adopted a policy of appeasement at the 1938 Munich Conference, whereby they agreed to the annexation. - In 1939, the Second World War erupted when Germany invaded Poland. - The Germans captured several countries (including France) in 1940, then attacked the Soviet Union the following year. - The United States entered the war on December 7, 1941, when the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the American Naval fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. - On June 6, 1944 (D-Day), the allied forces landed at Normandy in France. - They reached Berlin in April 1945 and Germany surrendered unconditionally the following month. - Japan surrendered unconditionally on August 14, 1845 after Atomic Bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9 . th th - More than 70 million people (including 45,300 Canadian military personnel) were killed during the Second World War. - From the onset of the Second World War, the allies began planning for a stable postwar world order. - In January 1942, the U.S., Britain, Soviet Union, China, and 22 other states signed the United Nations Declarations, pledging to adopt a united front and to employ all resources to defeat the Axis. - The Allies would hold nine major conferences during World War II which addressed the postwar peace. - In July 1944, the Bretton woods Conference established the postwar international economic system, including the international Monetary fund and the World Bank. - From April to June 1945, the San Francisco conference was held and adopted the United Nations Charter - There were 51 original members of the United Nations (UN) - Following world War II, the Allies became divided over the proper treatment of Germany and Japan. - Remembering the errors of the treaty of Versailles, the U.S. and Britain preferred to resuscitate their former enemies and permit them to play a constructive role in the new world order. - On the other hand, the Soviet Union sought retribution - Germany was divided into 4 occupation zones, administered by the U.S., Britain, France and the Soviet Union. Berlin was divided the same way. - in 1949, the Western states created the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), while the Soviets created the German Democratic republic (East Germany). o Bonn would be the capital of west Germany eventually for a short while. - Both West Germany and Japan were disarmed and democratic institutions were imposed on them by the victors. - The soviet union (miss Notes) - In 1946, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill gave a speech warning of an Iron Curtain that had descended across Europe. - In 1947, Britain informed the U.S. that is would no longer be able to maintain its presence in Greece and Turkey due to economic concerns - The era of the British superpower had ended. - U.S. President Harry Truman introduced the Truman Doctrine (1947) Miss notes - The U.S. initiated the Marshall Plan […] Miss all notes from here till end of class. Bellow are Sydney Notes U.S President Harry Truman introduced the Truman Doctrine (1947) proclaiming that the United States would help the nations of the free world The U.S initiated the Marshall Plan which offered economic and military assistance to promote free-market economies within Europe The Marshall Plan was one of the most successful U.S foreign policy programs, revitalizing European economies and restoring Britain, France and West Germany to major power status In June 1948, in response to a currency reform in West Berlin, the Soviets blockaded West Berlin for nearly one year by closing all land access routes from West Germany The U.S would carry out the Berlin airlift until September 949, flying in tonnes of supplies daily for West Berlin’s residents In response to Soviet aggression, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in April 1949 The Soviets responded in 1955 with collective security organization of its own, the Warsaw Treaty Organization or Warsaw Pact In September 1949, the American monopoly on nuclear weapons ended when the USSR tested its first atomic bomb In 1950, the National Security Council of the U.S issued NSC-68, a document calling for the expansion of America’s armed forces to contain international communism When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, the USSR was boycotting the UN Security Council at the time, so the UN managed to authorize a U.S.-led coalition which intervened and saved South Korea But when the Americans attempted to oust the North Korean regime, China intervened militarily, and the Korean War dragged on until fighting ended in a stalemate in 1953 Another crisis occurred in Berlin in 1961 when the Soviets erected the Berlin Wall around West Berlin That same year, the CIA sponsored the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles In 1962, the Soviets secretly placed over fifty nuclear missiles in Cuba The Cuban missile Crisis, erupted when U.S. intelligence discovered the missiles The United States blockaded all shipments of weapons to Cuba For thirteen days in October 1962, the world teetered on the brink of a nuclear war Finally, the Soviets backed down and removed the missiles in exchange for the removal of some American missiles from Turkey and an American pledge to never invade Cuba again The U.S. suffered its worst Cold War tragedy with its intervention in the Vietnam War In order to prevent South Vietnam from failing like a domino to comments aggression, the Americans gradually increased their involvement, from a few hundred military advisers in the early1960s to 500,000 soldiers by 1968 The U.S withdrew from Vietnam in 1973, having lost 58,000 military personnel Two years later, South Vietnam fell to the communist forces from North Vietnam, and Vietnam was unified as a socialist country The U.S. did take advantage of the Sino Soviet split to normalize relations with China in 1972 A phase of detente (relaxation of tensions) with Soviets was initiated in the 1970s, which produced treaties limiting the numbers of strategic nuclear missiles for both sides But detente ended when the USSR invaded Afghanistan in 1979. The Cold War heated up again U.S. President Ronald Reagan introduced the Reagan Doctrine in the 1980s, whereby the U.S. would support indigenous anti-Communist insurgencies around the world The Reagan administration spent more than two trillion dollars in defence spending to increased the size and quality of American nuclear and conventional forces It has been argues that the massive U.S. military build-up contributed to the end of the Cold War, because the USSR proved capable to keep up Furthermore, the glasnost (‘political openness’) and perestroika (‘economic restructuring’) policies of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev were instrumental in transforming Soviet communism In 1989, peaceful democratic revolutions swept through Eastern Europe Germany was reunified in 1990 and the USSR disintegrated in 1991 The Cold War ended dramatically… Class 4 February 1 2017 Imperialism and its Aftermath - Imperialism is the process of extending a nation’s authority through territorial acquisition or through the establishment of political and economic hegemony over other nations. - Throughout human history many extensive empires have risen and fallen, including Egypt, Persia, Rome, China, the Aztecs and the Incas - These empires were isolated from each other and often did not know of each other’s existence. - European imperialism began in the 15 century, once Western Europe became densely populated and natural resources were diminishing. - Imperialism was also fueled by a desire to establish trade routes to Asia to acquire spices, silk and other commodities, and by the development of new technologies in shipbuilding and maritime navigation. Spain and Portugal - Both Spain and Portugal sought trade routes to Asia that would bypass the middlemen who controlled the land routes through the Middle East. That began oceanic exploration in the 1400’s - To avoid conflict between them, Spain and Portugal agreed to the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), which established a vertical line 300 miles west of the Azores islands, Spain was granted all lands to the west of the line, while Portugal would gain all lands to the east. - Thus, Spain colonized Latin America, while Portugal controlled Brazil, Africa and the Indian Ocean. - The Spanish Conquistadors vanquished the indigenous peoples of Latin America and plundered its territories of its gold and silver. - The Portuguese preferred to establish trading ports rather than to occupy and colonize. - Strategically-located Portuguese colonies included Guinea-Bissau, the Cape Verde (missed notes) - When France controlled Spain during the Napoleonic era, the Spanish colonies launched their wars of independence. By the 1820s most of them had become independent countries. - The Brazilian Empire gained its independence peacefully from Portugal in 1822, but Portugal would hold on to most of its colonial possessions until 1970s. The Netherlands - The Dutch Empire began with the founding of the Dutch East India Company in 1602. - Like the Portuguese, the Dutch sought to establish strategic trading stations. - At the height of Dutch Hegemony in the mid-1600s, the Netherlands controlled the coast of Sought Africa, Ceylon, Java, St. Eustatius, St. Maarten, Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire, Guyana, And Manhattan where they stablished New Amsterdam. - They also established Colonies where Albany, NY is today - The Dutch cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague became the financial centres of European trade. - The Dutch Empire began to decline after Napoleon conquered the Netherlands. France - The first area of overseas colonization by France was along the St. Lawrence River in North America (I.E, New France). - France gained control over a large amount of territory along the Great Lakes and Mississippi River all the way South to New Orleans, but failed to populate it sufficiently. - The French Empire collapsed due to the Seven Years war (1756-63) - After the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15), France began building an overseas empire in Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Britain - The British built the largest empire of them all th th - In the 17 and 18 centuries, the British established - Miss notes - In 1607, Jamestown, Virginia became the first British overseas colony. - The British acquired more territory from the French and the Dutch after the Seven years’ war (1756-63) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15) - To avoid a repeat of the American Revolution, the British granted self-government to its white settler colonies of Canada, Australia and New Zealand in the 19 Century. th - But the British carved out territories for itself throughout Africa in the 1880s Russia - Imperial Russia expanded eastward, southward, and westward from 1500s till the 1800s - But the Russian Empire was slow to industrialize and modernize - In 1917, the Bolshevik Revolution toppled the tsar and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was created. The USSR would control - Miss notes The United States - The United States expanded its territory and built an empire through both conquering and purchasing territories - The Louisiana Purchase (1803) from France expanded the U.S. to the Pacific Ocean, - The U.S. would also purchase Florida from Spain, Alaska from Russia, and the Virgin Islands from Denmark. - The U.S. seized the Southwest and California during the Mexican-American War (1845- 48) - Victory in the Spanish-American War (1898) Brought control over Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Cuba. - The U.S. Would also seize Hawaii, Guam, and other Pacific Islands. o Hawaii was a kingdom back in the days... *** Alternative facts, and fake news was called YELLOW JOURNALISM BACK IN THE DAYS *** The Ottoman Empire - The Ottoman Empire was powerful for nearly 500 years - During its height in the 17 century, the Ottomans controlled the Balkans, Middle East and North Africa, and extended into Southern Russia and Ukraine. - The Ottoman Empire was disbanded following its defeat in World War I, and Turkey was formed in 1923. o Back in the days in the Ottoman Empire there was no religious conflicts Muslims, Christian and Jews lived side by side and just payed taxes… YES it was under an authoritarian regime however there was peace and no Religious conflict like we have today Germany - Beginning in the late-1800s, Germany acquired some colonial possessions in Africa (Togo, Cameroon, Tanzania, Namibia) and a few Pacific Islands - Germany was stripped of its colonies after World War I - Nazi Germany attempted to build an empire during World War II, but was thwarted. Japan - Imperial Japan conquered Taiwan(1895) and Korea(1910). - Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and extended further unto China In 1937. - After World War II, Japan lost all its conquered territories. o Back in the days when they controlled both north and south Korea they took those women’s and made them prostitutes to comfort their soldiers and till this day today both north and south Korea are still upset of what they did. Other Imperial Powers - Austria-Hungary (1867-1918) was a large empire that was confined to Central and Eastern Europe. - Belgium, Denmark, Italy and Sweden each had limited colonial possessions at some point. - As a consequence of Imperialism and colonialism, the development of different regions of the world has become very distorted. - Wherever there was settler colonialism (e.g., Australia, Canada, The U.S.) the indigenous population was forcefully displaced and European Settlers became the dominant population. - This occurred mostly in temperate climate. - Wherever elite colonialism was implemented, Europeans became the political and economic elite, but the native populations tended to retain their cultures. - Elite colonialism occurred mainly in tropical climates. - With regards to their economic development, colonies became littles more than producers of raw materials for export to the mother country, and captive markets for manufactured goods from metropole. - After gaining independence, these countries became dependent on trade with their mother countries. - Colonial powers like Britain and France often instituted democratic institutions when they granted independence to their colonies. - But democratic regimes often did not last for long in these newly-independent countries - The artificial (missed notes). Irredentism: - When a country attempts to gain control over a region in a neighboring country where the inhabitants are the same ethnicity as the irredentist country. - Examples: o Russia vs. Ukraine (Crimea). o Armenia vs. Azerbaijan (Nagorno-Karabakh). Secessionism: - When a region within a country attempts to separate, and become an independent state. - Examples: o Scotland (the United Kingdom). ▪ *Scotland have a lot of oil hence they don’t want to separate from Europe but now that there is Brexit they might be able to have a referendum and be successful and remain in Europe…. o South Sudan. (Sudan) Class 5 February 8 2017-02-01 A New World Order, 1991- Present - In 1991, after the Cold War had ended, U.S. President George H.W Bush spoke of a “New World Order”. - The U.S. – U.S.S.R. superpower rivalry would be replaced with a system whereby states would cooperate against aggression and other common threats within the framework of international law. - The new world order had encountered its first test in August 1990, where Iraq invaded Kuwait. - The following year, the UN authorized an international coalition of tates led by the U.S. to liberate Kuwait (Operation DesertStorm) - The Persian Gulf War (1991) was short and successful in liberating Kuwait, with very few coalition casualties. - In 1993, the European Community transformed into the European Union, where people, goods and capital could move freely between member states without borders. - As of 2017, there are 28 EU members - But despite these developments, the positive mindset of the 1990s was dampened by major tragedies in three countries: o Yugoslavia o Somalia o Rwanda Yugoslavia - War broke out in Yugoslavia in 1991, when Slovenia and Croatia seceded. - When Bosnia-Herzegovina attempted between Bosnian Serbs, Muslims, and Croats. - The Serbs engaged in brutal policies of ethnic cleansing against the Muslims. - The wat ended in 1995 following military intervention by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). - Bosnia-Herzegovina became an independent country, but divided into both a Muslim- Croat State and a Bosnian Serb republic. (Srebrenica massacre) in 1995 - In 1999, when Serbs carried out ethnic cleansing against Albanian Muslims in Kosovo, NATO violated international law in launching air strikes against Serb targets in Yugoslavia. - Kosovo gained freedom from Yugoslavia, and Yugoslavia eventually disintegrated. Somalia - After its socialist dictator was ousted n 1991, Somalia was torn apart by rival warlords and famine erupted. - When UN humanitarian intervention failed, the U.S. intervened militarily, but withdrew in failure in 1994 when American public opinion turned negative after seeing videos of American soldiers brutally killed. Rwanda - The Rwandan genocide (1994) featured the slaughter of nearly a million Tutsi and Twa by Hutu militiamen. - The UN peacekeeping mission withdrew in the midst of the slaughter after several peacekeepers were murdered. - Following the failed intervention in Somalia no state wanted to intervene in Rwanda. - Following the Holocaust of World War II, when 11 million Jews, Gypsies, disabled people, and homosexuals were murdered, many believed that genocide would never occur again. - But both the Cambodian and Rwandan genocides, and the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and Kosovo, proved that humanity was still capable of great evil. - The events of September 11, 2001, changed the world significantly. - Unfortunately, the new millennium ushered in an era of terrorism and counterterrorist measures, including the American War on Terror. - In retaliation for the Al-Qaeda attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the U.S. invaded Afghanistan where Al-Qaeda was based and toppled the Taliban regime in 2001. - The American combat mission would not end until December 2014, making the War in Afghanistan the longest war in American history. - The George W. Bush administration made the controversial decision to invade Iraq in 2003 and oust the Saddam Hussein regime - The War in Iraq lasted until 2011, but American soldiers departed a chaotic and failed state that is now a haven for terrorism. - The Arab spring revolts of 2011 were fueled by dreams of freedom among the peoples of North Africa and the middle East, but they proved to be a disappointment for many citizens. - The Leaders of Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen were swept form power. - But only Tunisia made a successful transition to a democratic regime. - Libya has collapsed into civil war. - Syria and Iraq are suffering through horrible civil wars featuring multiple actors, including the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) - The Era of American hegemony may be over, as both China and Russia are flexing their military muscles. - China is attempting to assert dominance in the South China Sea region. - Russia has annexed Crimea and is supporting a secessionist movement in Eastern Ukraine. 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