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Lecture

DNA Review and Mutation

4 Pages
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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
BIOL1010
Professor
Cheryl

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DNA, Mitosis, and Cancer
DNA review DNA: double helix, sides made of sugar and phosphate, middle make of
nitrogenous bases
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, millions of combinations in DNA
Copying DNA in cell division: 1. DNA helicase unzips DNA, 2. DNA polymerase
enters the gap and builds the new side of the DNA using free floating nucleotides
DNA polymerase = enzyme catalyst (quickens reaction)  assists covalent bonding of the nucleotides
along the sugar phosphate backbone
Mutations Sometimes errors occur during DNA replication
DNA mutations may lead to a protein being the wrong shape and .: not working
properly
Chromosome
formation
DNA condenses into chromosomes
1st wraps around proteins called histones, when tightly coiled is called
chromosomes
DNA in the chromosome was replicated and 2 sister chromatids are formed and
held together by centromere
Cell Division Many cells divide to reproduce or to replace themselves (skin)  growth, healing,
development (from egg), asexual reproduction (bacteria, plants)
Cell Cycle Interphase: normal functioning phase of the cell, length varies
G1 phase: organelles duplicate, cell replication is closely controlled by proteins 
protein receptors in the cell membrane bind to growth factors, when enough has bound
to cell it’s stimulated to divide, assuming the cell is large enough and has enough
nutritional resources
S phase: DNA replication
G2: production of proteins required for mitosis and more growth, proteins make
sure that DNA has replicated properly and cell is large enough
Metaphase: proteins ensure proper attachment of chromosomes to microtubules,
if problems are detected in the cell, division is halted and cell death may occur..
however if damage occurs to DNA coding for the protein at G1, G2, or metaphase
checkpoint then cells may be allowed to divide even with a problem
Cancer The mutation that caused the cell to divide without permission will be passed to
daughter cells  uncontrolled cell division  exponential growth  tumor
Tumor can be malignant or benign, invades surrounding tissue
Angiogenesis Stimulate blood vessels to grow into the tumor and thus steal the blood supply
from health tissue

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Description
DNA, Mitosis, and Cancer DNA review • DNA: double helix, sides made of sugar and phosphate, middle make of nitrogenous bases • Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, millions of combinations in DNA • Copying DNA in cell division: 1. DNA helicase unzips DNA, 2. DNA polymerase enters the gap and builds the new side of the DNA using free floating nucleotides DNA polymerase • = enzyme catalyst (quickens reaction)  assists covalent bonding of the nucleotides along the sugar phosphate backbone Mutations • Sometimes errors occur during DNA replication • DNA mutations may lead to a protein being the wrong shape and .: not working properly Chromosome • DNA condenses into chromosomes formation • 1 wraps around proteins called histones, when tightly coiled is called chromosomes • DNA in the chromosome was replicated and 2 sister chromatids are formed and held together by centromere Cell Division • Many cells divide to reproduce or to replace themselves (skin)  growth, healing, development (from egg), asexual reproduction (bacteria, plants) Cell Cycle Interphase: normal functioning phase of the cell, length varies • G1 phase: organelles duplicate, cell replication is close
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