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Lecture

Meiosis, Fighting Cancer

4 Pages
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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
BIOL1010
Professor
Cheryl

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Meiosis, Mutations, & Fighting Cancer
Fighting Cancer Multiple mutations are needed for more cancers to occur, usually happening
over a lifetime by:
Errors in replication
Carcinogens – radiation, chemicals, etc.
Free radicals – ionized particles that can steal electrons from stable molecules
Contagious Cancer: HPV, Tasmanian Devil
Finding and fighting cancer: biopsy, excess protein, and chemotherapy,
radiation
Proto-oncogenes Genes involved in cell cycle regulation
Become oncogenes when cancerous
Tumor suppressors Stop cell division if something is wrong
Can fix DNA
Meiosis Without meiosis the number of chromosomes passing on to zygote would be
out of control
Allele
Homologue
Gamete
Diploid
Haploid

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Description
Meiosis, Mutations, & Fighting Cancer Fighting Cancer • Multiple mutations are needed for more cancers to occur, usually happening over a lifetime by: • Errors in replication • Carcinogens – radiation, chemicals, etc. • Free radicals – ionized particles that can steal electrons from stable molecules • Contagious Cancer: HPV, Tasmanian Devil • Finding and fighting cancer: biopsy, excess protein, and chemotherapy, radiation Proto-oncogenes • Genes involved in cell cycle regulation • Become oncogenes when cancerous Tumor suppressors • Stop cell division if something is wrong • Can fix DNA Meiosis • Without meiosis the number of chromosomes passing on to zygote would be out of control Allele • • • Homologue • • • Gamete • • • Diploid • • • Haploid • • • Chromosome 1. Chromosomal deletions mutations 2. Chromosomal duplication 3. Chromosomal inversion 4. Chromosomal translocation Aneuploidy • Too many or too few chromosomes, caused by nondisjunction  something goes wrong during meiosis (anaphase I or II), if a zygote ends up missing a chromosome = monosomy, if I zygote ends up with an extra chromosome = polysomy • Some conditions are: Down’s Syndrome (3 of chromosome 21), Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY), Turner Syndrome (X) Polyploidy • If nondisjunction happens in 3 or more chromosomes Triploid • Abnormal  humans: 23 + 23 + 23 = 69 (3n), very rare in animals, happens in plants Diploid • Normal  23 + 23 = 46 (2n) Haploid • Normal sex cell
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