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DNA Review and Mutation

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Health Sciences

DNA, Mitosis, and Cancer DNA review • DNA: double helix, sides made of sugar and phosphate, middle make of nitrogenous bases • Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, millions of combinations in DNA • Copying DNA in cell division: 1. DNA helicase unzips DNA, 2. DNA polymerase enters the gap and builds the new side of the DNA using free floating nucleotides DNA polymerase • = enzyme catalyst (quickens reaction)  assists covalent bonding of the nucleotides along the sugar phosphate backbone Mutations • Sometimes errors occur during DNA replication • DNA mutations may lead to a protein being the wrong shape and .: not working properly Chromosome • DNA condenses into chromosomes formation • 1 wraps around proteins called histones, when tightly coiled is called chromosomes • DNA in the chromosome was replicated and 2 sister chromatids are formed and held together by centromere Cell Division • Many cells divide to reproduce or to replace themselves (skin)  growth, healing, development (from egg), asexual reproduction (bacteria, plants) Cell Cycle Interphase: normal functioning phase of the cell, length varies • G1 phase: organelles duplicate, cell replication is close
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