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BIOL1010 (3)
Cheryl (3)
Lecture

Meiosis, Fighting Cancer

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Department
Health Sciences
Course
BIOL1010
Professor
Cheryl
Semester
Winter

Description
Meiosis, Mutations, & Fighting Cancer Fighting Cancer • Multiple mutations are needed for more cancers to occur, usually happening over a lifetime by: • Errors in replication • Carcinogens – radiation, chemicals, etc. • Free radicals – ionized particles that can steal electrons from stable molecules • Contagious Cancer: HPV, Tasmanian Devil • Finding and fighting cancer: biopsy, excess protein, and chemotherapy, radiation Proto-oncogenes • Genes involved in cell cycle regulation • Become oncogenes when cancerous Tumor suppressors • Stop cell division if something is wrong • Can fix DNA Meiosis • Without meiosis the number of chromosomes passing on to zygote would be out of control Allele • • • Homologue • • • Gamete • • • Diploid • • • Haploid • • • Chromosome 1. Chromosomal deletions mutations 2. Chromosomal duplication 3. Chromosomal inversion 4. Chromosomal translocation Aneuploidy • Too many or too few chromosomes, caused by nondisjunction  something goes wrong during meiosis (anaphase I or II), if a zygote ends up missing a chromosome = monosomy, if I zygote ends up with an extra chromosome = polysomy • Some conditions are: Down’s Syndrome (3 of chromosome 21), Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY), Turner Syndrome (X) Polyploidy • If nondisjunction happens in 3 or more chromosomes Triploid • Abnormal  humans: 23 + 23 + 23 = 69 (3n), very rare in animals, happens in plants Diploid • Normal  23 + 23 = 46 (2n) Haploid • Normal sex cell
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