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Lecture

BIOL 1010 Lecture Notes - Hemoglobin, Citric Acid Cycle, Electrochemical Gradient

18 pages63 viewsFall 2013

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1010
Professor
billpohajdak

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Biology: The Eukaryotic Cell 9/10/2013 10:35:00 AM
Essential cell activities:
Obtain energy
Exhibit selective permeability
Interpret and use information in DNA
Separate chemical reactions from one another
Reproduce
ACRONYM: ESOIR
Discovery of Cells
1660 microscopes
―cells‖ term coined by Robert Hooke
o took a piece of cork thinly sliced and examed in and saw the
―cells‖ which remineded of him of the monestary where
monks lived, better known as cells, hence the term.
1670s Anton van Leeuwenhoek made many microscopes and
looked at everything; he sold cloth (merchant) he used microscopes
for thread count
o first to see sperm cells and bacteria (he drew them)
1838 Schleiden and Schwann all organisms composed of one or
more cells. Structural unit of lie
1855 Virchow cells can only arise by division from a pre
existing cell
Two Types of Cells:
Prokaryotes no membrane bound nucleus/ no membrane bound
anything
o PRO meaning BEFORE / KARYOTES meaning NUCLEUS
o Bacteria and archaea
Eukaryotes compartmentalized
o Protists, fungi, animals and plants
o EU meaning TRUE
A Bit About Sizes:
1000 microns in 1mm
Our eye balls can only see around 200 microns most eukaryoteic
cells are between 10 and 100 microns
Endomembrane System:
Nucleus: largest organelle in the cell
o red blood cells don‘t have nuclei unless a bird or fish
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o Chromatin = DNA + Proteins
o There is some DNA outside the Nucleus, but for the most part
is is capped inside.
o Nucelus has two membranes
o Nuclear Envelope has two sides: facing outside of nucleus and
facing DNA hence, ENVELOPE
o DNA RNA ( mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)
o DNA In nucleus = transcription ---- RNA In cytoplasm =
translation ----- Protein
o Nuclear Lamina kind of like a cement, protection of nucleus
o Nucleolus : RNA is made, and combines with proteins to make
ribosomes To send message, use mRNA, tRNA deciphers the
code, and rRNA is ribosomal RNA
Ribosomes: large and small subunits
o rRNA and protein
o make protein
o found free in cytosol
attached to membrains (endoplasmic reticulum and
nucleus)
mitochondria and chloroplasts
Endoplasmic Reticulum: rough / smooth
o Rough because ribosomes are attached
They make proteins for protein synthesis:
Proteins to be exported out of cell
To be incorporated into membranes
To be importaed into other organelles
An address is put on when the synthesis happens
and the ribosomes move to the membraine based
on that address
o Smooth because no ribosomesDUH
TWO main functions: lipid synthesis and detoxification
(add OH groups to make the stuff more soluble; the
liver does this)
Golgi Apparatus:
o Each stack not connected to each other; each stack is called
a cisternae
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o Formed from ER vesicles
o Cis, medial and trans cisternae (POLARITY)
o Vesicles
o FUNCTIONS: manufacturing (adding sugars), sorting, storing,
and shipping SSS&M ;)
o Cisternal Maturation Model
Lysosome
o Come from the Golgi
o Vesicles hydrolytic enzymes (breaking water or substances,
NOM NOM NOM) - acidic pH
o Intracellular digestion
PHAGOCYTOSIS (cell eating)
Lysosomes do not eat themselves (the membranes they
do eat is sugar coated, like candy= yummy for them!
It‘s like why we don‘t eat our own stomach its acidic,
mucus and produces ulcers, so same idea)
AUTOPHAGY (self eating) its like anorexia when the
body has nothing left to eat and there is no food, it will
start to eat itself to survive to gain protein
Mitochondrua
o Energy synthesis (ie ATP synthesis)
o Outer and inner membranes, matrix, intermembrane Space
and Ribosomes: 2 membranes are not continuous; the inner
membrane goes backwards and forwards to form cristae
Inside the inner membrane is the matrix (jelly like
material full of proteins, containing ribosomes and DNA)
Mitochondrial DNA: CIRCULAR and all maternal
mother‘s mitochondria.
o Endosumbiont Theory: membrane of larger cell + membrane
of smaller cell double membrane
Cytoskeleton: Microfilaments (7nm thick), microtubules (25 nm
thick), intermediate filaments (10-14 nm thick)
o Made up of proteins
o Intermediate filaments: Required to keep a firmness and
structure of cell
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