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Section 2.docx

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Dalhousie University
BIOL 2020
Patrice Cote

Section 2 December-08-11 11:25 AM Metabolism  Combination of all chemical reactions that can occur in the cell Metabolic pathway  A portion of metabolism, a sequence of chemical reactions in which each reaction is catalyzed by a metabolic enzyme, and is substrate for next reaction Metabolic reactions  Catabolic o Breakdown of molecules into smaller ones o Provide raw material for synthesis into other molecules o Breakdown of molecules produces energy for cell  Anabolic o Building smaller molecules into bigger ones o Require energy to construct molecules Mitochondria  Not static, usually found in areas of cell where energy is needed  Can divide and fuse together o Fission o Fusion  Transported by molecular motors along microtubules  Porin o Outer membrane protein o Composed of beta sheets o Forms beta barrel o Opens and closes by twisting o Allows small molecules access to the intermembrane space o Largest that can enter through are 1500 daltons in size  Outer membrane o Seperated from inner membrane by intermembrane space  Inner membrane o Functionally distinct from cristae o Connected to cristae by narrow connections o Impermeable to proteins  Has special fatty acid called cardiolipin to do so  Has 2 glycerol groups, 4 fatty acid tails  Allow membrane to be very dense  No cholesterol in it 4 types of protein in the inner membrane  Those that carry out the oxidation reactions of the respiratory chain  ATP synthase, which makes ATP in the matrix  Transport proteins that regulate the passage of metabolites into and out of the matrix  Protein import machinery F1 particles  Attached to cristae o ATP synthase is made up of this and F0 particles o Never on outer membrane The matrix  Contains a high concentration of proteins  Site of the trycarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle  Contains mitochondrial genome and gene transcription/translation machinery o I.E. Can make its own proteins Glycolysis  Occurs in the cytoplasm  Glucose --> 2 pyruvates  4 ATP made, two ATP used, net production of 2 ATP  2 NADH  Net reaction: o
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