Monetary: Interest rates. Goes two ways going to get more money off of interest and
borrowing money is going to be harder.
Fiscal: government budgets, expenditure, revenue.
Structural: more capital goods than consumer goods is a structural change.
Output of market value; Final goods and services= When selling a car at the price
which is market value it includes the value of all the goods that went into the
making of the car.
GDP= geographic limitations
GNP= ownership of resources
Capital good: a good that will create more value in the future ex. Machine. They are
included in GDP calculations.
Second hand goods excluded from GDP.
When selling a house the value of house isn’t included because it isn’t new but the
commission is included
When selling stocks and shares the price of stocks and shares are not included but
the commission gained is included because it is a service and something is being
created. Second Note
Not included in GDP: illegal activities, underground economy and barter economy
(dentist does teeth for his accountant and is not recorded), house hold production
(repairing your own home)
When people cut down trees the value is only then become evident to the economy,
no value is seen in the trees or natural resources until they are used up
Natural disasters bring a increase to GDP
Income approach of finding GDP: land: farm income, rental income
Labour: wages and salaries value of fringe benefits
Capital: profit, dividends, interest, investment income minus income received from
abroad minus interest paid on public debt
Find in-between value of expenditure approach and income approach.
Market value: price * quantity
Nominal GDP= actual price * actual quantity
Real GDP: base year price * actual quantity
Years Pucks Root BEER
MADE SOLD MADE SOLD
2005 100 5$ 300 20$
2010 125 7$ 400 18$
2005 nominal GDP = (5*100)+(20*300)= $6500
2010 nominal GDP = (7*125)+(18*400)= $8075
2010 real GDP (2005 base year) = actual quantity *2005 price
Base year nominal GDP: real GDP
GDP deflator= nominal GDP/real GDP * 100
2010 GDP deflator =8075/8625*100=93.6
Genuine progress index
Genuine happiness index: Bhutan want to see their economic self-reliance. Tourists
must pay a daily fee to stay there, this helps preserve the land as well as the culture,
and they want good governments in the form of democracy. Working age population: 15 years of age or older.
Labour force: employed and the people who are unemployed (not have a job,
looking for a job, and are able to start work)
Participation rate= labour force/working age population*100.
Unemployment rate= number of unemployment/labour force *100.
Working age population = 2000
Labour force = 1500
Employed = 1200
Participation rate: 1500/2000*100= 75%
Unemployment rate: 300/1500*100=20%
Discouraged workers= 100 not included for unemployed because they have given
up on looking for a job
Consumer price index: helps monitor inflation
Basket of goods and services: things a family will buy with a fixed quantity
Monthly Expenditures 2000 2001
Pizza (20) 200 (@10) 220(@11)