Class Notes (836,591)
Canada (509,862)
English (42)
ENGL 1040 (5)
Dr.Haslam (5)

Tarzan of the Apes.docx

17 Pages
Unlock Document

ENGL 1040

February 3rd midterm: 2 parts: multiple choice, short answer regarding the material we've been reading (including the grammar stuff) and a list of theories and terms in one column and theorists in another column --> match them up -- define 2 of those terms in your own words apply one of those terms to Tarzan in your own words Overview 1912: novel, by Edgar Rice Burroughs, originally published in October issue of the all-story magazine 1914: expanded version published as a hardcover book by McClurg publishers 1918: First films version screens 1923: Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc. founded: first author to incorporate himself to protect royalties 1929: First comic strip appears 1932: First "talkie" film was released: first radio series airs Very popular The way in which it started to dominate multimedia culture Massive phenomenon Popular culture, mass culture phenomenon 30s to 1960s new Tarzan movie every year (sometimes more than 1 a year) Cannot over estimate the importance of Tarzan Argument overview/structure of novel Tarzan is the individual man, thrust into an unfamiliar landscape The hero's séparation from his own origins and his lack of belonging in his new surroundings makes him stronger than other people The (white) hero is pitted against a (non-white) enemy, who is portrayed as weak, violent and childlike The (male) hero falls in love with the first (white) woman he sees, who, of course falls in love with him All of the above frames a need for a new kind of (white, American) masculinity, that s threatened both by radicalized, globalized "other" and by the "effeminacy" of civilization Thesis statement Major debates is the debate between nature and nurture Nature vs. Nurture Essentialism (born with a particular essence that defines who you are) vs. Social construction Are each of us personally -- and humanity as a group -- shaped more by somethings innate within us (biology; soul; essence; human nature), or by our surroundings (upbringing, background, culture) Cultural theories tend to side on "nurture" side of things Freud: driven by our id, our libido, but we shape our "ideal ego" and so our behaviour according to "public opinion" How do people deal with these desires that aren't publicly accepted? Repression (ignore it) and sublimation (take desire that is not accepted and redirect it onto something else) Marx: Shaped by the economic forces (base) of society, and by the class relations of that society; later Marxists say culture (superstructure) also helps to shape (interpellate) us Barthes: Shaped by language and the myths of our culture(s) Tarzan: Natural or Nurtured? Society can shape us (in negative ways) See comparisons of Tarzan and the other Lord Greystoke (page 70) Tarzan is being favoured - represented as the pinnacle of masculinity and strength whereas his cousin is represented as weak (can't even handle an undercooked piece of pork). Sees that we are shaped by our nurturing but sees that social nurturing is a bad thing. The social construction has a damning effect of someone, whereas Tarzan is raised in nature Outside of society, and so not shaped/nurtured by civilization Stripped of all social and cultural institutions so not "constructed So, he represents the "essential", "natural" man Page 85 - one man has the whole forest afraid of him while the other one is weak Tarzan is nature itself in some ways Page 19 - idea that they aren't just in a different place they are represented as being in a different time - in jungle of foundation of humanity itself (at the dawn of evolution). The basic most natural, least civilized space as possible Page 50 - Basic, most natural a human can be - the essence of humanity Page 153-154 -- image of the primeval man and woman - striped of all society - blurred not seeing clearly but when that goes away she discovers love etc. Essence of humanity Allusion - alludes to another piece of work Page 162 - representation of first humans - Tarzan is like adam Page 166-167 - leafy bower is direct quotation from … used to describe the garden of Eden. Tarzan is represented as the first, most essential person Ideal man is strong etc. whereas the ideal woman (Jane) is represented as passive, weak, unable to cope on her own. But as recognizing the ideal man -- has all the characteristics of victorian femininity but she is also a little ebit more like an active man than the woman around her Tarzan is stripped of all influence - best of human nature Burroughs vs. Theorists Burroughs: There is an essential human nature Some aspects of human nature are "universal" Repeating a certain gender code/myth Page 20 Page 196 Critical of society - strips man He outstrips all of our strong men - he is way above average he is the ideal man Jane becomes the essential woman in his presence (as do - to a point - Tarzans mom and dad as they are stranded Theorists: Freud: we all have an id, but we learn to repress & sublimate based on cultural expectations: Tarzan as "ideal ego" Marxism: "universa;" traits are ideological and are used to support the status quo Barthes: Notions of human nature are meaningless until put into a particular myth (think of the "family of man" exhibit_; and the myth again serves the status quo Burroughs' essential man/ideology of gender Real man: Real men are courageous Real men are chivalrous Real men are physically strong Real men take charge Real woman love real men: women are heart, men are mind, but real men are mind and physical strength Civilization takes all that away, so real men, like Tarzan have to get back to nature to discover their "true" selves "Cult of the primitive man" Boy scouts Extra reading Women are more governed by their body than men are Don't talk about cycles in men but do in woman (men have 24hr cycles - but only ever hear about women and their personality during "the time of the month") Ideology that supports the status quo (a dominant power that stays in power - basically men) Men are represented as more rational women are represented as emotional Page 12 of her piece "If the topography of the universal subject….. Page 20 of Tarzan - men are represented as philosophical Jane doesn't think, she acts (acts emotionally by kissing Tarzan) She (author of extra reading) is saying men are rational, women are physical - doesn't match up with Burroughs list of a real man - ideal man in Tarzan is perfectly fit as well but he is also rational -- it is his brain that makes him better than his surroundings (the apes) but he is also strong (real men are mind and physically fit) What might Burroughs be worried about here: society losing the image of the ideal man (men doing office work - loss in physical strength) challenging the myth that men are purely mind The early part of the 20th century the boy scouts are created - after Tarzan came out there were groups modelled after Tarzan were kids could join - also a time with an emphasis on physical health, and natural parks --- Burroughs sees society as striping us as something human - if we are too separated from it we all become Lord Greystoke in London (a little too soft) trying to define a new masculinity. Masculinity for the new urban age Trying to find new definitions of gender (women more active and men more physical) Scouts is all about making young boys more honourable through nature - revived turn to nature Dealing with a changing society (women were started to get jobs, African Americans were now starting to work next to the white people) Burroughs wanted to bring it back -- give the white man strength February 10th Structure of the exam 2 parts: material that we covered from the writing handbook (only on stuff that was scheduled for tutorials not ones on snow storm days) and a) list of 5 terms from theoretical readings - match to theorists name and b) define 2 of the terms in relation to the larger thing in which they are found --- example Id -- the id is our instincts - one component of our psyche, our drive to survive… basically expand the definition -- the more detail you give (if accurate) the higher your grade will be In a paragraph you will have to relate one of those theories to Tarzan Smith article Embodiment Page 5 under heading the universal subject - 6 lines under that "The inaugural moment…. as a fixed… consciously pursuing its…destiny." Talking about the individual the way we defined it in first or second class -- the idea of humanity of a group of individuals that are self contained units of independent action --- refers to universal subject -- referencing the individual who is the universal subject We are all separate unique individuals It didn't always exits (the idea that we are all individuals) - its a theory in other words This notion of the individual is much more detailed, restrictive than the theory says. In theory we are all self-motivated etc. But this theory actually doesn't work this way in practice. Idea is that is actually something that benefits certain people. Who does it benefit? This is what
More Less

Related notes for ENGL 1040

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.