# GEOG 2000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Baby Boomers, Total Fertility Rate, Birth Rate

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7 Aug 2016
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Chapter 10 – applying Population Ecology: The Human Population
Demography- the study of size, composition, and distribution of human populations and the
causes and consequences of changes in these characteristics. Specialists in this field are called
demographers
Crude birth rate (BR)- the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
Crude death rate (DR)- the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
Doubling times- a measure of population growth which is the time (usually in years) it takes for
a population growing at a specified rate to double its size
Rule of 70- a quick way to calculate doubling time: 70/percentage growth rate = doubling time in
years (ex. If the population grew by 1.2% you would go 70/1.2 to get 58 years double time)
Fertility- the number of births that occur to an individual woman or in a population. Two types of
fertility rates affect the country’s population size and growth rate:
Replacement-level fertility- the number of children a couple must bear to replace themselves
which is about 2.1 in developed countries and 2.5 in developing countries
Total fertility rate (TFR)- the average number of children a woman typically has during her
reproductive years. These numbers have dropped since 1950
Life expectancy- one of two useful indicators of overall health of people in a country or region,
which is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. This is increasing
except for age 59 in Africa and other poorer developed countries
Infant mortality rate (IMR)- the second indicator which is the number of babies out of every
1,000 born who die before their first birthday.
Age structure- the distribution of males and females in each age group
Baby boomers make up 50% of the 75% living close to the American border
Family planning- provides educational and clinical services that help couples choose how many
children to have and when to have them. Such programs vary from culture to culture, but most
provide information on birth spacing, birth control, and health care for pregnant women and
infants
Environmental refugees- refugees fleeing from environmental disasters
The typical unpaid workday for a woman in rural Africa leaves little time for education
Bureaucratic inefficiency- refers to a failure of an organization to complete the work that it exists
to perform
Economic incentives- An incentive is something that motivates an individual to perform an
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