State owned business, social services such as education and health care – was supported – state lead
development – 1970’s heavy government regulation of the economy was seen as negative. – undermining
flexability that corporations need in order to be profitable.
UN > initiate and manage development efforts, peace keeping mitions and campaigns to eradicate poverty
3 factos inform and constrain the role o the uN in developing countries
UN is a political organization not a developmental one
Ends and means of development have changed since UN founded
UN not a single actor – example: world bank is apart o the UN family but not system
However UN have had some success in development such as..
Disease and illness control small pox
Provision of technical expertise and administrative oversight, and provides a focal point for new thinking.
UN isn’t always present in peacekeeping and enforcement all of the time – Rwanda
Multinational corporations: Nov 5 7:00 pm
Why is gender a development issue?
Social justice, gender equality should be advocated because it is good for development, women are the
ones who care for children so they can educate them, her income will help give her children better
education, she will uplift her family and community…
Gender myths: men are farmers, women are better carers, men are the income earners, African men are
laz and women produce entire food crops, female headed households are oorest of the poor.
on average, women are more disadvantaged in several barriers
women in development:
an attempt to compensate for gender blindness that existed before. Women shuld be added to
development, and they focus on womens productive roles. Argued that women could contribute to the
development process, rather than just being needy beneficiaries of development – women needed to be
integrated. Increased ecnonmoic participation of women would result in a move towards equality between
men and women .
this drive created certain contribtuions – enhanced the understanding that there was a need for statistical
measures of womens work. Ther was a need for increasing womens opportunities for education and
eompoyment, and created a women in development policies and bureaus
there was also critiques – focuses on women rather then on power relations between genders. It treates
women as a homogenous category – rather than individuals. It oes not look at genders just at women…
Gad focus – goes from unequal power relations between women and men. Improvements of womens status
requires a shift between the power status between women and men at all micro an macro levels.
Development policies should not isolate womens reproductive roles as they are interwtwined into womens
lives, successful development does not target women but it empowers them. Development projects must
involve both women and men identifiying solutions to issues. Development projects need to confront and
contribute to womens position in life.
Critques of gad – gender and women are used interchangeably. Tendency to become depolitcised as it
becomes institutionalized. du
Practical gender needs are needs women and men identify with in their lives and roles as a woman and as
a man – basic needs like shelter, water, health, income. These may improve their living standards but not
position in life. th
Nov 5 7:00 pm
Strategic needs – subordinate position in society owmen experience – changing structure of power control
and division of lavour – womens vulnerability to violence, access to education, lack of mens respobibility in
chils care. Rwanda 09/17/2012
1993 – sporadic fighting between hutus and RPF – forcing Rwandan government to let them back home
after being exiled some time ago. Both sides by this time were under pressure from international
organization to reach peace settlement. The peace settlement was agreed to by both sides but it was
precarious and they weren’t actively accepting it. There was fear amongst public and militias put a blueprint
for the genocide before it began. After the presidents plane was crashed down conspiracies were made
about who did this, but this is where the genocide began up to 1 million were slaughtered in 3 months of
the genocide. The intimate nature makes this genocide unlike any other – Rwandan army participated but
most people were killed by civilians. A lot of the Hutu majority took part in the genocide. They had a shared
religion, intermarriage and language – this was another significant abnormality in this genocide.
Factors to the genocide:
Economic status – poor people in rwanada fiered consiquences of Tutsi return, farm land was already under
intense pressure so if regugees came back where would they live, whos land would they take? Arcitecs of
the gencodie used this against them and used propaganda to instill fear to the hutu population that they
would steal their land. Before genocide economy was decreasing and they lived in poverty.
International neighbours – romeo delaire –
It wasn’t critical to them and it was seen as dangerous.
Samalia was an important factor why usa did not intervene.
Africa fatique – reluctant to intervine as there are always conflicts in Africa… Africa is hard to understand
and because of this they are reluctant to go in the first place, ethnic conflict is viewed as inevitable in Africa.
Conflict in drc is still experiencing insecurity
Current Rwanda : tutsi government but are the minority. Rpf government – there will not be a democracy
where hutus will be in power – right now there is a crack down in Rwanda and citizens are being repressed
cause they don’t want ot let go of power in case of another genocide. Rwanda Genocide 09/17/2012
complex relationship between structure and agency…
legacies of colonialism:
1.the nature of pre colonial society
2. historical timing of colonialism
3. motives an forms of colonial rule.
differences between hutus and tutis: belgim created differences of them that weren’t based on real science,
tutsis apparently were more like Europeans with thinner noses and lighter skin…
pre colonial Rwandan society: hutus were agriculturalists, tutisis were cattle herders – since they had arich
diet of milk and meet they were some what taller than hutus. in 15 – 19 centuries highly organized state
dominated by tutsis. yet their power was frequently shared with hutu… at a local level hutu controlled
significant power. the differences between hutu and tutsi was more social and political not ethnic or race
based… Kwihutura was a ceremony where hutus could become tutsis… it had nothing to do with race but
with social class…
social Darwinism… humanity was hierarchically created in which white Europeans were the most
hematic hypothesis: a son of noa turned back as a punishment… he was black on the outside but white on
the inside.. all progress in Africa was the result of the civilizing influence of the outside raise. hamites were
black Caucasians.. such as Tutsis.
since European colonialism was indirect rule through the tutsis the hutu experienced colonialism through
the domination of tutsis rather than the domination of Belgians.
exploded into violence in “hutu revolution of 1959” killing and displacing many Tutsi. RPF created a civil war
in 1990… the genocide was an effort by hutus extremist to protect the gains of the 1969 revolution.
coffee and tea was an important legacy to Rwanda… exported to Europe they were dependent on a single
commodity agricultural export. coffee export was responsible for 75% of exports earned in 1990. the global
price of coffee plummeted in 1980’s which resulted in an ecomonic and political crisis which crashed the
economy. this created more poverty, in 1990s there was 100,000’s of unemployed people especially young
human agencents lead o genocide not historical events… Rwanda Genocide 09/17/2012
radios were used as a source of propaganda
why study development theory? Because theory shapes what government and activists do in the name of
development. All policies are performed by the perspective of development and underdevelopment – how
to explain inequality and what leads to poverty…. Development theory is all about trying to understand the
forces of development and the impact on peoples lives. Figuring out what are the most important questions
being asked. Development theories are political – representing different forms of political struggle. Theory
is always for someone and some purpose, all theories have a perspective on the world that is derived from
different positions in the world and historical experience.
problem solving theory – addressing issues within the social context it derives from. from the perspective of
development – poverty is viewed as a problem solving = unequal already existing distribution of wealth and
institutions which political decisions are made. Than, find solutions to povety within the framework of
already existing power relations and institutions. The second purpose of theory is what cock calls
critical theory – it stands apart from privaling world order.. how did it come about? Unlike problem solving
theory it doesn’t take power relations for granted but takes them into question, how did they come to be nd
how might they change? Development perspective – less focused on finding short term fixes to
contemporary issues but looking at the root causes of development.
Modernization is a problem solving theory – asks questions about how global economy and society came
into being and how might they be changed to be more just.
What obstacles do different development theries see as standing in thew ay of the global south. Rwanda Genocide 09/17/2012
Modernization theory – most influenctal theory that has shaped development policies – us peace core and
youth volunteer programs following this peace core. Geographic context in which modernization theory
emerged: born in the U.S. in late 1940’s. it emerged in response to the rise of development. National
independence of European colonies – decolonialisation up until 1960’s and the cold war. How to promote
development was put into question. But unti l1950’s policies regarding development stratagies was
undiscussed. For the U.S. the cold war made the need to promote development urgent. The loss of china
and cuba were seen as wake up calls to communist threats to capitalism. Development = national security
to the U.S. – if it did not happen quickly there was a risk that independent countries would turn communist
like those of cuba and china. Urgent question – how to make development happen quickly? = political
context in which trumen created his speech about development and what it is… modernization theory was
used speed up economic growth of developing theory, it emerged to support U.S. and western security
interests as a basis to develop strategies that would prevent communism and promote capitalism in
Central questions of modernization theory: how do countries become developed and what are the major
barriers to development… but did not ask how they became underdeveloped in the first place…
underdevelopment was the “starting pint” for development… modernization is Eurocentric. Assuming what
works for them or capitalism works for everybody…
Modernization saugh development as economic growth and created a shift to values and practices of
modern – tradition to modernity societies. Countries in Africa, asia and L.A were poor due to inability to
break away from traditional cultural values and adopt modern values that would promote economic
growth… key to development = how to adopt modern values and instituions.
Core elements of m theory: modern values = profit motive, rational thought, belief in science, concern witg
efficiency… traditional values: spiritual and religious beliefs, no value for hard work…
Second core element: underdevelopment is a common starting point, modernization theorists saw
underdevelopment as a place all societies began… western experience was the model of development.
5 Stages of growth from underdevelopment to development:
1. traditional society = underdevelopment Rwanda Genocide 09/17/2012
2. preconditions for take off
3. take off
4. drive to maturity
5. age of high mass consumption = development
injustice of cocoa production points to the principle cause of development = global capitalism.
Historical context: emerged in latin America in 1960s – anti American imperialism. Modernization theories
and predictions of economic growth were not occurring in reality, inequality between south and north were
growing. Many weren’t achieving the “take off” stage of development…
Karl marx basic argument was that capitalism was based on exploitation of labour of owners of capitalism,
Based on declining value of raw material exports from south to north core ideas of classical economics is
displayed – comparative advantage – some places have advantages I producing certain goods – cocoa in
Gana… if nations who specialized in productions benefited most from their procuts it would create
development… global free trade – if south concentrates on their primary products – agriculture – which they
have a comparative advantage – and they focus on industrial advantages – it would advantage both sides
and create an equal exchange.
Declining terms of trade and causes: excessive production in the south, declining prices forced and to
produce more… industrial substitutions for primary products – fake rubber… rising wages in the north What is Development week 2 09/17/2012
What is Development?
The study of how and why inequality injust and poverty exist globally. The study of th complex challenges
of responding to these problems. Action without understanding is problematic it condemns us to repeat
mistakes that have been made in the past. critically examines assumptions of northern superiority.
Technological, educational and medical advancements in a community, progression in human rights. As of
now there is no precise answer and its always changing.
1 Development as a planned intervention or “project” – its developed as an issue and is transferred in a
“Developed” country in so called “undeveloped countries” in the global south. Construction of roads
hospitals schools or initiatives to teach hygiene and literacy in communities. Planning projects in helping
people to develop.
2. unexpected outcomes struggles of political powers, development of Europe or the Americas – long
process of change and gradual social economic and political stages throughout time. emergence of
capitalism and consumerism.
development projects may produce unexpected outcomes… to look into why inequality and poverty is so
wide spread we have too look into more then just debt and aids. We have to look into history of colonialism
and how its shaped so called “Developed” countries. Intentional plans interact with unacknowledged or
unknown structures and produce unintended outcomes.
The history of development as planned interventions:
1) national independence of former colonies
3)u.s marshall plan in Europe
4)apparent success of USSR
President Truman 1949 Inauguration – YouTube video
point 4 of Truman’s speech: it becomes very clear that part of this notion of development was about the
cold war and keeping the spread of communism at bay. His speech helped define the word development.
He described what was then as the “3 world” as victims. The development enterprise was created for self
interest What is Development week 2 09/17/2012
development as economic growth – typically measured in gross domestic product per capita. Looking at
them we can see how much a country is progressing or not. But concentrating on GDP for development
can be bad ass… economic growth doesn’t necesarrely promote quality of life. 1. Doesn’t say how they
use that wealth for well being of life an example is that sri lanka has less gdp they used their resources to
invest in health and education, where as Saudi Arabia has a higher gdp but didn’t use money for growth of
any sort. 2. Without government intervention it doesn’t automatically lead to a better life. They are meraly
averages they don’t say how the money is being distributed – nothing