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Microbiology Notes With Dr.Tim Lee

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Dalhousie University
Microbiology & Immunology
MICI 2100
Tim Lee

Microbio w/ Tim Lee 10/3/2013 6:03:00 AM The Immune System; responds to infection  Defends the body against infectious agents**  Engages in surveillance activity against cancer development o Mice without immune system, keep them in an enclosed clean environment, they will develop cancer much easier. o Immuno-deficient people die by other infections disease before cancer  Is mostly non-self reactive but tolerates some self reactivity o Hyper active immune systems are reason for immune- deficiency o Allows respond to “self” cells (cells that look like self)  Looking too much like self causes immune system to respond to those cells and then attack self.  Is tightly regulated o Swollen lymph nodes have extra cells used for immune response. o This is brought down when you are no longer sick, but doesn‟t go down to zero because of “memory”  Is still a mystery in many ways- for example why do we have allergies? o Why are there still allergic responses?  Because they must somehow provide some kind of protection. (advantage) Passive Immunity  Kind of immunity you get when you are very sick and you need help very fast o If you step on a rotten nail, (tetanus) o Passive protection given right away, to kill toxin that bug is producing o Clears toxin from system so now you can recover  Transfer of antibody from one individual to another to provide short term protection  No memory  Fast  Safe  Snake bite & Spider bite Active Immunity  Development of an immune response by contact with the offending organism or protein o If you get measles you will develop a long lasting immune response  Involves the interaction of many cells in the immune system as well as the production of antibody o Cellular mechanism of the immune system are all activated, long lasting memory  Long lasting memory  Takes weeks to achieve o Two weeks to get good immune response to vaccination (active immunity)  Better overall protection  Some risk Bacterial Infection Bacteria Infection as soon as you cut yourself, immediate response Nervous system responds first, OUCH; neuropeptides are released Nerve cells and mast cells together, neuropeptides trigger mast cells Blood clots; clotting factors; product in blood called compliment: C3a, C3b When you bleed and clot you have an activation of compliment pathway, Bacteria have proteins and polysac. on them; LPS and CPG motifs around (PAMP, pathogen associated molecular patterns)  1.Mast cells o Have receptors binding C3a and C3b o Toll like receptors; TLR, bind to LPS and CPG o Mast cell is activated; by PAMP and compliments o Releases histamine; increases vascular permeability, makes it leaky with tiny holes; allowing plasma (liquid component of blood) into tissue (does not allow cells out, holes are too tiny) o In plasma there is antibody and complement o Blood vessels will get bigger (vasodilation) o This creates the primary factors that you see in acute inflammation o Increased vascular permeability causes swelling and pain o More blood to area gives you redness and heat due to vascular permeability o Swelling, pain, redness, and heat are 4 characteristics of acute inflammation. Swelling and pain caused by Increased vascular permeability. Redness and heat caused by vasodilation. o Antibody will come in whether you‟ve seen the bacteria or not o Antibodies are proteins in the blood, VP will cause them to come out and will get through the holes, antibodies will attempt to bind but may not if you haven‟t seen that bug before, if you have seen the bug your antibody will bind o Compliment will bind to bacteria and kill them o C3B binds directly  2.Macrophages o Have receptors binding C3a and C3b o Toll like receptors; TLR, bind to LPS & CPG o Macrophages activated; by PAMP and Compliments o Role is to take up bacteria and kill them o Macrophage is by taking in the bug, LPS & CPG o Macrophage produces cytokines & Chemokines; produced by immune cell that has a kinetic effect on other cells o Interlucant (IL-1, TNF; tumor-nicrosis-factor) o Chemokines; are like cytokines except they attract cells to the area (
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