Class Notes (806,530)
Canada (492,283)
NESC 2470 (13)

Lecture 5, Nov 23rd, 2011.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Dalhousie University
NESC 2470

Lecture 5, Nov 23rd, 2011 November-23-11 7:33 AM Neurology  A branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of nervous system disorders Psychiatry  Concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders that affect the mind Freud's theory of psychoanalysis  Based on two major assumptions o Much of mental life is unconscious o Past experiences, particularly in childhood, shape how a person feels and responds throughout life Psychotherapy  The use of verbal communication to help the patient General paresis of the insane  Affected 10-15% of institutionalized psychiatric patients  Symptoms o Mania/excitement o Euphoria o Grandiose delusions o Eventually paralysis and death  Caused by infection from Treponema pallidum o Same organism that causes syphilis  Treated using penicillin Anxiety disorders  Most common psychiatric disorder  The inappropriate expression of fear  More than 15% of Americans will suffer from some form of anxiety disorder  Some caused by genetic predisposition  Others caused by stressful life events Panic attacks  The sudden feelings of intense terror that occur without warning  Palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea, dizziness, tingling sensations, and chills or blushing  Usually short lasting, only 30 minutes at most Panic disorder  2% of population suffers from  Twice as common in women  Frequent, unprovoked panic attacks consisting of discrete periods with the sudden onset of intense apprehension, fearfulness, or terror, often associated with feelings of impending doom Agoraphobia  Often an outcome of panic disorder  Affects 5% of the population, twice as common in women  Anxiety about, or the avoidance of, places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing, or in which help may not be available in the event of a panic attack Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD)  Affects 2% of the population, equal between men and women  Obsessions, which cause marked anxiety or distress, and/or compulsions, which serve to neutralize anxiety  Symptoms fluctuate in response to stress levels Stress response  The coordinated reaction to threatening stimuli  Characterized by o Avoidance behaviour o Increased vigilance and arousal o Activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS o Release of cortisol from the adrenal glands  Hypothalamus very involved in stress response Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis  Mediates the humoral response o Cortisol is released from adrenal cortex  In response to high adrenocortocotrophic (ACTH) hormone levels  Released by anterior pituitary gland  In response to cortocotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)  Released into blood by parvocellular neurosecretory neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus  Regulates the stress response  Regulated by the hippocampus o Hippocampus stimulation suppresses CRH release CRH neurons of the hypothalamus  Regulated by two structures which both receive information from the neocortex o The amygdala  Critical to fear response  Anxiety disorders can be cause by hyperactivity here o The hippocampus  Contains numerous glucocorticoid receptors  Respond to the cortisol released from the adrenal gland in response to HPA system activation  Anxiety disorders can be caused by diminished activity here  Participates in the feedback regulation of the HPA axis by inhibiting CRH release  Exposure to constant high levels of cortison (in chronic stress) can cause hippocampal neurons to die Treatment of anxiety disorders  Psychotherapy o Exposure to stimuli that produces anxiety is gradually increased to reinforce that stimuli is not dangerous o Aim is to alter connections in the brain so stimulus doesn't cause stress  Anxiolytic medications o Alter chemical synaptic transmission in the brain to reduce anxiety o Major classes of drugs used  Benzodiazepines  Bind to GABAa receptors, and make GABA much more effective at opening chloride channel, producing inhibition  Valium most commonly used  Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)  Prozac most commonly used  Most notably used to treat OCD  Acts to prolong the actions of released serotonin at their receptors by inhibiting reuptake  Effects take time
More Less

Related notes for NESC 2470

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.