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November 5th 2012.docx

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NESC 3180
Shelly Adamo

November 5th 2012 November-05-12 12:36 PM Ecological Immunology  The basic principle of this is that disease kills (or reduces fitness at the very least)  So therefore there should be positive selection on mechanisms that can resist disease o Despite this, no animal has ever evolved with perfect immunity? o Why?  Red Queen Hypothesis  Pathogens evolve even more rapidly than you do  For example, if tape worms are able to reproduce every few weeks, think how many generations they would go through in your 70+ year lifespan. Much more chance to evolve more rapidly than you Immune systems are not "free"  You must "pay" something to maintain them o Immune system is damaging o Energy you invest in your immune system cannot be used toward reproduction, so the more you give to immunity, the more you have to take from somewhere else Immune system costs  Energy (calories from food) o Some must be used to keep your immune system online o Hard to measure energy consumed when not in use, but can and have measured it when in use (using these methods)  Increased metabolic rate = increased demand for energy, increases during increased immune response (As much as 15% increase in basal metabolic rate)  Increased consumption of glucose  Comes from a variety of stores, when really run down, it begins depleting fat reserves  Resources o Things required for immune system as well as other functions, so you only have so much, and have to balance its use o Immunity requires scarce resources, not only calories  Such as carotenoids o These resources put a limit on how much you can put into your immune response, if you are short on these resources, the amount you can put into your immune system is limited  Immunopathology o In immune response, we make these reactive molecules, like reactive oxygen species (ROS)  These are "thrown" at pathogens to help destroy them  But too much can do damage to yourself  Only a problem if your ROS molecules outweigh your antioxidants Oxidative Stress  Reactive molecules o Damage cell membranes, DNA, leading to cellular dysfunction and/or death  Such as hydroxyl radicals that steals H from a unsaturated fatty acid  Which leaves a reactive carbon radical  Which can then bind to things like oxygen  Known as Lipid peroxidation Lipid Peroxidation  Can have numerous negative effects  This process is how pathogens are destroyed by ROS molecules, however are not very specific so the potential is there to damage your cells as well Antioxidants  Deactivate reactive molecules o Without becoming active itself  Can do that by rearranging molecular bond structure of molecule that the reactive molecule took an H from  So by having lots o
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