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November 19th 2012.docx

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NESC 3180
Shelly Adamo

November 19th 2012 November-19-12 12:39 PM Evidence for trade-offs reproduction and immunity  When female going through pregnancy, she actually involutes or destroys part of her immune system so she can use that energy to maintain young she is incubating in her body What determines directions of trade off?  Animals more likely to sacrifice immune system if they have short lifespans and few breeding seasons o Beneficial because it doesn't live long anyway  But animals with long lifespans, they will not sacrifice their immune system nearly as much  But as animals age and approach end of life, you're much more likely to see these negative trade offs Future reproduction and immune/repro trade offs  Red tailed phascogale o Small animal, males only live 1 year o Females live 3 years o Males live shorter because they have very intense breeding season  Stop eating  Testosterone and corticosterone levels go through the roof  Immune system takes a nosedive  Contract all kinds of infections  Dasyurus maculatus o Bigger animal, longer lifespan, males have several year lifespan o Doesn't make as much sense to invest as little in immune function, need immunity to resist disease over longer life Physiological mechanisms mediating energetic trade-offs  Leptin o Made by the fat tissue o Suppresses appetite o Has immune function  Tells the body that you have lots of fat reserves, tons of energy available o So high levels correspond to optimal immune function  So high leptin = high immune response  But low leptin levels = immunosuppression o Neurons sensitive to leptin, and then they sense the low levels, which then tell the immune system to dampen down Leptin and immunity  Mutant mice who can't synthesize leptin see drastic decrease in i
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