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NESC 3180 (6)

October 29th, 2012.docx

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NESC 3180
Shelly Adamo

October 29th, 2012 October-29-12 12:37 PM Immune-neural connections  Problem with BBB was that it means it prevents almost all the signals the immune system sends from getting into the brain, in particular cytokines  And there's no lymph nodes in the brain, so it was initially believed there was no way for the immune system to talk to the nervous system  But there are 4 basic routes: o Afferent nerves sensitive to immune factors (Vagus nerve)  Sensitive to cytokines  Respond with increased neural activity o Circumventricular organs (name for brain areas clustered beside the ventricles)  Have very thin or non-existent BBB in this area  Meaning things in the blood have easier time reaching these organs  These organs have receptors for both pathogens (TLRs) and for cytokines  If sensed, these cells can release cytokines into the rest of the brain  Are like blood taste sensors for the brain o BBB, transporters for cytokines o IL-1 receptors on endothelial cells of brain venules (cells of blood-brain barrier)  Kind of an indirect route  Instead of secreting cytokines into brain, produces prostaglandi2 E , which tells the brain that there are cytokines in the blood o Not a lot of details are known about any of these routes as of yet  Microglia o Are the brain's own macrophages o Only live in brain o Never leave brain o Move around in brain, looking for pathogens o Are mostly phagocytic o Have receptors for cytokines, and amplify any cytokine signals that enter the brain Chronic neuroinflammation  If you have all microglia in a region releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, eventually neurons in that area will die  The microglia seem to play a role in all of the neurodegenerative diseases Sickness Behaviour  When people given these cytokines for cancer therapy, there's a very powerful effect on sickness behaviour o Can be bad for cancer patients, for instance the decrease in appetite associated
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