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NESC 3227 (19)
Kim Good (19)

February 7th, 2013.docx

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NESC 3227
Kim Good

February 7th, 2013 February-07-13 1:01 PM Orbitofrontal frontal injury is common after blunt head injury  The movement associated with hitting your head can cause the shearing of nerve fibres o Causing microscopic lesions, in particular in frontal and temporal areas Olfactory pathways  Anosia had fairly good predictive value of who goes back to work o As the brain goes forward and back it will shear off the olfactory nerves, causing the anosia Why head injuries create orbitofrontal and anterior temporal lobe damage  There are sharp edges inside the skull that the brain will hit when it moves o Possibly causing hematomas Orbitofrontal lesions and divergent thinking  Divergent thinking impaired in these lesion patients  Ways of testing o Fluency of speech (left prefrontal)  Individual given letter of alphabet, told to write as many words as possible that start with that letter in 5 minutes  Low output in lesion patients  Then asked to write as many words that start with a letter but only 4 letters long  Low output and rule breaking in lesions patients o Fluency in design (right prefrontal)  Told to draw as many nonsense figures as they can, can't repeat designs, in 5 minutes  Then told to draw nonsense figures using only 4 lines  Reduced output Ventromedial frontal cortex and reversal learning in humans  Individuals with lesions to these areas have difficult time assessing the reward value of a stimulus, and when the reward value changes, they have the difficulty making the change  Unable to change behaviour when stimulus contingency changes Affective shifting  Two decks of cards, one deck is winners and one is losers  Once they learn the task, the winning deck then becomes the losing deck o Ventromedial lesions have trouble with the reward switch involved here  Ventromedial shows many more errors than dorsolateral frontal o Different because of the emotional component involved in this Lesions that affected appreciation of humour  Right anterior frontal lesions diminished the amount people laughed (spontaneous affective response) o Areas 8, 9 and 10  Humour requires the in
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