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NESC 3227 (19)
Kim Good (19)

April 2nd, 2013.docx

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NESC 3227
Kim Good

April 2nd, 2013 April-02-13 1:07 PM Make sure to know lots about the Parkinson's section and schizophrenia Normal aging and cognition  Associated with specific deterioration rather than general slowing of every skill  The prefrontal regions are most susceptible to reduced blood flow o Over time certain areas (prefrontal area worst) see decreased levels of blood flow, and the deprivation of oxygen causes cells to die  Recognition memory stabilizes during normal aging  Recall memory tends to decline Delay the effects of aging on the brain  Staying in a mentally stimulating environment o The mechanisms not known, but likely the elaboration of dendritic branches and synaptic connections  Aerobic exercise o Vascular proliferation, prevents hypertension and diabetes Psychometrics are key to measuring abnormal test scores  Used to determine if cognitive deterioration is taking place  Most are standardized on same-age same-sex peers Standardization of scores  The raw scores on a particular test decline as we age o They are relative to your age, sometimes also sex and education  Block design on the weschler test o The amount of time taken to match the picture is recorded o For 22 year olds, mean is 45-48 o For 52 year olds, mean is 38-41 o For 72 year olds, mean is 29-31 Comparing across domains  Memory, intelligence, attention, spatial skills, language  For the most part, we do more or less the same on all the tests we do o But usually vary within one standard deviation of our other domains (33% of people do) When do clinicians start to diagnose problem  To have cognitive complaints, one domain as low as 1.5sd below average, but no interference with daily life o These people have mild cognitive impairment  Has a prevalence after 70 years of age  The risk of progression to dementia is 10x higher in these persons  But not all persons with MCI progress any further Profile of results on neuropsychological tests in 65 year-old complaining of forgetfulness  Most cognitive domains are normal  But memory is 2 standard deviations below the mean, so borderline  This individual would likely be diagnosed with MCI, not dementia Organic dementia can not be explained by normal aging  In normal aging, the slope of the decline of cognitive function is relatively gradual  In people starting with MCI, gradual sl
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