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January 22nd, 2013.docx

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NESC 3237
Sean Barrett

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January 22nd, 2013 January-22-13 2:33 PM ***Guest Lecture*** Marcel Peloquin - Addiction Lecture What is addiction?  Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviours. Addiction is characterized by inability to consistently abstain…..on slide You can become addicted to  Alcohol  Tobacco  Opiates What about  Cannabis  Gambling  Pornography  LSD  Coffee  Exercise  Using the internet  Working  Sex 4 main categories  Condition based-models o Opponent-process model of addiction  Whenever you engage in a process (take heroin) you body produces a subsequent action to bring your body back to a normal level  You get this rebound effect where you go below normal, kinda like an undershoot, and eventually return to normal  Underlying opponent processes (opponent process theory)  A is the high you get from the drug  In this theory, this doesn't change  B is the subsequent action produced by your body  However this does get bigger the more you use it, so over time your withdrawal gets stronger  Cognitive models o Basic principles of this is that you have cravings and urges  Craving to use a drug  Urge to go out and physically use a drug o What this model says you initially use this drug for the pharmacological effects, and then feel the urge to use it to get your fix o But why would you go back to using it if you learned how bad of an effect it causes? o Dual-affect model  Positive and negative affective urge network  Positive affective urge network becomes more powerful over repeated use  Motivational models o Affective motivational model  Maybe your negative withdrawal effects are more of a motivation to take the drug then the feeling of being high does  Doesn't explain  Why drugs like cocaine which have low withdrawal effects are so addicting  Or the ritual processes people often begin performing when they take the drug  Like taking cigarettes out, lighting it, ect.  Psychobiological models o Neuroplasticity changes in the brain o When you take a drug it ends up making neuroplastic changes inside of your brain  Such as increase excitability of the mesolimbic dopamine system due to glutamate activity  Dopamine activation of ventral striatum improves the connections to the ventral striatum, makes it more excitable
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