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NESC 3237 (9)

February 12, 2013.docx

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NESC 3237
Sean Barrett

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February 12, 2013 February-12-13 2:33 PM For Exam  50 points for multiple choice  10 for 2 short answer questions  60 points total  Not really concerned with background info, statistical methods  More focused on the results and methods  Short answer from lecture material  Multiple choice based on articles  Probably around 2 questions per articles  For addiction pathways o Mesolimbic dorsal striatum o Frontal cortex o Anything in particular mentioned, be sure to know really well o Be familiar with neurochemistry involved with different addiction pathways Tobacco is highly addictive  Tobacco addiction is arguably one of the most addictive drugs out there  Idea that tobacco addiction and nicotine addiction are synonymous  Tobacco related disorders o Nicotine dependence o Nicotine withdrawal Why is the focus on nicotine  There is very little direct evidence that nicotine itself is an addictive drug  It's the most abundant component of tobacco  Has psychoactive properties o Increase in heart rate, blood pressure  Nicotinic receptor sites on dopaminergic cells in the ventral tegmental area What makes a substance addictive  It needs to be voluntarily administered  Must choose the substance over a pharmacologically inert substance  The drug itself must be capable of producing compulsive patterns of use  Removal of the substance must produce withdrawal Will nicotine dependent humans self-administer nicotine  Independent of tobacco use  Studies have been conducted using different methods of administration and different types of smokers o The majority of these studies fail to develop a preference for nicotine in absence to tobacco in comparison to a placebo  The only studies showing self-administered nicotine are the studies where participants are told they will receive nicotine or inactive placebo  So in studies where placebo mimics effects of nicotine, there is no preference, but with inactive placebo there is  If people are told they receive nicotine, they will self-administer more puffs o Whether or not they had nicotine did not produce significant effects Is nicotine in the absence of tobacco preferred to tobacco in the absence of nicotine  Some evidence that nicotine infusions preferred over saline  The one that is most preferred is tobacco without nicotine, substantially higher than nicotine without tobacco Is nicotine misused apart from tobacco  Virtually unheard of, despite its availability Is there evidence that nicotine produces withdrawal in humans  Nicotine replacement therapy designed to help people cope with withdrawal  But people seem to be able to quit gum, patches and inhalers without any symptoms of withdrawal Nicotine as a treatment for colitis  Patients with colitis often receive nicotine in or
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