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Aging Family Ties.docx

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NURS 1030
Heather Helpard

Family Ties, Transitions and Challenges What is a Family? Duvall’s Family Life Cycle  Married Couples (no children)  Childbearing Families  Families with Preschool Children  Families with School Children  Families with Teenagers (oldest child, 13-20)  Families Launching Young Adults  Middle Aged Parents  Aging Family Members Criticisms of Family Development and Life Cycle Models  Variations in Family Resulting From Individual, Cultural and Sociohistorical Differences in Family Structure.  Increases in Life Expectancy  Changes in Age of Marriage and Childbearing  Vertical Family Structures and Generational Acceleration  Middle Generation Squeeze Characteristics of Marriage Trends  Majority of North Americans Marry Once (Median Age is Highest in History)  Traditional or Egalitarian Marriage  Alternative Unions  Married People Tend to Be Happier  A Decline in Negative Marital Feelings with Time  Increasing Divorce Rates with Remarriage and the Step Family  Widowhood Sternberg’s Relationship Theory  Passionate Love: Intense emotion, sexual feelings, absorption in each other and companionate is warm, trusting affection. (This replaces passionate loves. Intimacy, sharing, warmth and closeness and commitment which is the intent to maintain the relationship. Changes from recreational to a working relationship.  Companionate Love (Intimacy and Commitment)  Theorizes That a Newly Married Couple Finds the Transition from Passionate Love to Compassionate Love Difficult Correlates of High Marital Satisfaction  Affectionate and Enjoyable Personal Relations  Togetherness  Good Parental Role Models  Acceptance of Conflict  Homogeneous Personalities  Agreement on Marital Gender Roles  Low Levels of Stress  Good Coping Mechanisms  Sexual Satisfaction Parenthood  The Average Fertility Rate is 2 children Per Couple  Birth of a First Child is a Major Family Transition  More is Known About the Transition and Later Stages of Parenthood  Maternal and Parental Roles are Changing - Changing roles: shifts in work and family roles: full time motherhood is no longer the norm; more than 60% of women work outside the home; fathers balance between work and children. New fathers are present in delivery room; hands on care: do little for expectant fathers; double bind be involved but be treated as outsiders.   Middle Adulthood Challenges (Empty Nest)  Couples are waiting longer to have children: The number of childless women 40-44 has almost doubled. Career choices; delay of parenthood and loss of fertility. Affects definition of self, relationships with other and lifestyle. Generativity and gender role behavior: Dyad to triad:  Trend for delayed parenthood: increasing numbers of women are having their first baby over 35. . As long as mother’s health is good, increased risks can be minimized. Problems are the rates of infertility. The plus side they are emotionally mature; self confident, more financially stable better with discipline and more involved with kids. Ripple effects; late may delay relationships with grandparents.  Positive experience; can be a source of great stress: more stress and less well being. Increase in workload: changes in strucutre: spouse compete with attention with the baby: Increased workload less time with husband. Traditional shift of roles after baby born. Social life will change. Recreation now found at home.  Down spiral of satisfaction after baby. Vulnerable , inadequate and depressed and positive feelings towards husband decline. . . Baby more positive over time.  Middle years of parenthood: Renegotiate relationship with adult children: : care and dependency on children. Intergenerational Ties  90% of North American Adult Children Report Being Close or Very Close with Parents.  Older Adults Prefer Not to Live with Adult Children  Women are Likely to Have Closer Relationships in Families  Grandparenting Roles Have Changed  Sibling Relationships Become More Important with Age Role/Trend Transitions in the Aging, Adult Population  Parent Role  Grandparenting Role  Widowhood  Retirement  Mortality Awareness  Declining Function  Reduced Income  Shrinking Social World Types of Primal Relationships  Spousal or Partner  Siblings  Parental  Grandparenthood  Great Grandparenting  Other Kin  Friendships Family and the Aged  Family Roles  Family Dynamics  Family Caregiving Statistics on Informal Caregiving in Canada  There are about 2.8 million informal caregivers of seniors in Canada  About 3.5 million seniors in Canada are being cared for by family members or friends.  They do not receive pay and they carry out long hours of work.  Informal caregivers provide 80% of the care to seniors. Characteristics of Informal Caregivers  Most Informal Caregivers are Between the Ages of 25-64 years.  The Largest Group of Informal Caregivers are Women Aged 45-64  Most Seniors Over 65 Years of Age Also Provide Significant Amounts of Care  Close to 40% of the Caregivers are Employed and 33% Reported Disturbances to Their Work Performance. Considerations to Adding a Senior to a Household  Needs Analysis  Modifications to the Environment  Potential Areas of Conflict  Ways to Decrease Conflict Types of Care Being Provided  58% Were Providing Some Form of Basic Care, Travel to Appointments, Errands or Visits with Friends.  30% Were Helping with Financial Support  22% Were Keeping Track of Medication and Medical Supplies Concerns of Informal Caregivers  Approximately 60% Report Physical Strain  46% Suffer Clinical Depression  37% Feel Frustrated  75% Pay Some Out of Pocket Costs for Caregiving (Approximately $19-20,000 year) Factors Associated with Caregivers Quitting  The Care Recipients’ ADL Limitations  The Caregivers’ Physical Burden (Sleep Disturbances and Inability to Leave the Care Recipient Alone)  If the Caregiver was a Family Member Other Than the Spouse Predictors of Institutionalization  Cognitive Impairment  Advanced Age; White Race  Caregiver’s Appraisal of Caregiving as “Emotionally Hard”  High Levels of Caregiver Burden  Paid Help or Informal Helpers Signs of Family Dysfunction  Less Able to Fulfill the Physical, Emotional, Socioeconomic and Spiritual Needs of the Senior  Rigid in Roles, Responsibilities and Opinions  Unable or Unwilling to Obtain and Use Help from Others  Composed of Members with Behavioural Disorders  Inexperienced or Ineffective at Managing Crises 
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