NURS 1030 Lecture Notes - Pap Test, Pelvic Floor, Epididymis
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Social Development, Friendship and Mate Selection
Overview of Social Relationships
1. Human need for affiliation (to be connected, validated and recognized)
- characteristics reflect the drive to be in a social group (e.g. cooperativeness, loyalty,
adherence to social norms/fear of rejection, distress at the end of a relationship)
2. Basic unit of social systems
3. Developmental reciprocities (key to development)
- Are reciprocal, each person pays attention to and responds to the behavior of the
- Are interdependent, the people in the relationship influence each other and
participate in activities over an extended period
- Since relationships are dynamic, a developmental change in one person, will have a
developmental change in the other (known as developmental reciprocities).
- Family ripple effects: “life event webs”, a change in one that affects the system (e.g.
4. Occur within a broad and evolving sociohistorical context (In the olden days it would
have been uncommon to get married at 35, but now it is okay).
5. Links between social relations, health and mortality
- Social interaction is such an important aspect of life that it was seen as the
- Health: you deal with stress better and live longer (especially with men, results
are varied in women).
- ** Living alone = a risk factor for poor patient prognosis
- Morality: they establish norms, are efficient and make you more protected
Great exam question: Who would have the best health outcome?
Answer: Roommates in a room recovering with the same condition rather than no roommates.
Rationale: Because of the desire to affiliate under threat, which includes:
1. Cognitive clarity- the need for information about the threat (the health condition)
2. Emotional comparison- the need to determine if one’s emotional response is accurate
3. Emotional support/ reassurance
What is Social Support?
Consists of interpersonal interactions that provide:
1. Positive affect- admiration, respect, love
2. Affirmation- agreement with actions/statements, reassurance of worth
High quality social relationships involve a high level of social support
- Ensure to always look at context and culture.
- Some families need to have everyone present in order to make decisions.
Linked to psychological well-being, mental and physical health and longevity
- Reason: more support is linked to less stress. (since stress is linked to poorer health
outcomes, and impaired immunity).
** Word of caution from Heather: Make sure that you are able to assess this as a nurse. Make
sure to observe, talk and listen. Observe the communication practices of the patient and family.
Recognize those who are not ‘support people’.
Benefits of Social Networking Interventions
1. Quality of Life
- Decreasing social supports can have a negative life effect
- Chronic illness can be a cause of social supports falling apart.
- Social supports enhance perception of control
- Enhances self concept/efficacy
2. Mental Health
- Poor psychological health is related to negative relationships (care giving for
example, is not a reciprocal relationship; therefore, is linked to burn out)
- Increased social supports will lead to less rumination thinking.
- We gain information and assistance from others that aid in our self concept (culture,
history, sense of self from reassurance and life exposure)
- Supports recovery (alcoholism)
3. Physical Health
- Produces positive effects on Cardiovascular, endocrine and immune system
- May slow biological aging
- Both genders benefit from social supports, due to buffering the stress response
- Poor physical health undermines social interaction by:
- Reducing energy due to feeling down/depressed
- Limiting opportunities to maintain relationships
- Poor health can decrease ability for the person to remain in touch
with their social supports, limit the ability to set the location/timing,
which ultimately can reduce the reciprocal nature of the relationship
An Individual is enmeshed in a social network of emotionally close others that moves with
the person throughout life.
Convoy building may develop in early adolescence and young adulthood
- As you develop, you get more relationships (as you pick your ‘convoy’)
- When you are young, you have more ‘trucks’ around you than at any other time.
- As you get older you ‘prune’ your contacts (inner circle gets smaller)
- Gets limited to family, close friends
Convoys are chosen by the early 30s
Socioemotional selectivity theory
- Determine who makes the cut or not, which is based on maximizing social/emotion
gains and minimizing risks
Gender and cultural influences
- This impacts the size of your network
- Women: have larger networks, with more family in it.
- Evolutionary: linked to survival to have larger networks and to keep the
- Culture: Collectivist vs Individualist
Functional Specificity of Relationships Model
Suggests that relationships tend to become specialized in terms of the kinds of functions
they serve in an individual’s life
- Not one person can meet all your needs. Some are finances, emotional, tutoring
Social networks are continually evolving
Equity Theory of Social Interaction
Suggests that individuals attempt to maintain relationships that are fair and just.
- Learn to cut people out that do not accomplish this.
- I.E. Husband and wife: not about immediate balancing of the chequebook, but upon
Relationship orientation- determine who does what.
Females have more of a communal orientation
- Are socialized to put other people first/ drop anything for another person.
- Are more linked to recover faster and take risks
- I.E. Husband had an MI 20 years ago, Wife just gets one, but is more worried about
the husband than herself.
Males have more of an exchange orientation
- Exchange the resources. Focus more on the cheques and balances.
- More apt to quit the ones that don’t get it.
Overview of social relationships: human need for affiliation (to be connected, validated and recognized) Characteristics reflect the drive to be in a social group (e. g. cooperativeness, loyalty, adherence to social norms/fear of rejection, distress at the end of a relationship: basic unit of social systems, developmental reciprocities (key to development) Are reciprocal, each person pays attention to and responds to the behavior of the other. Are interdependent, the people in the relationship influence each other and participate in activities over an extended period. Since relationships are dynamic, a developmental change in one person, will have a developmental change in the other (known as developmental reciprocities). Social interaction is such an important aspect of life that it was seen as the ultimate punishment. Health: you deal with stress better and live longer (especially with men, results are varied in women). ** living alone = a risk factor for poor patient prognosis.