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Work and Retirement.docx

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Dalhousie University
NURS 1030
Heather Helpard

Work and Retirement The Nature of Work 1. Choice of occupation reverberates through our lives 2. Main determinant of SES & social class (significantly influences health and health outcomes) 3. Roles define society’s expectations (especially nursing (angels in white BS)) *important to ask this information when assessing health history Reasons for Working 1. Financial security (#1) 2. Self esteem 3. Social acceptance & respect 4. Entree into adulthood 5. Personal fulfillment 6. Social contact (women cite this more) 7. Generativity *loss of a job can spiral people into depression Current Work Force 1. Requires higher skill level 2. Majority require secondary education (means delay in starting a family) 3. Workforce is diverse 4. Wage gap for women & minorities (women have more disruptive work cycle) 5. More cognitive, less physical (tech jobs) 6. Multiple work arrangements Required Competencies 1. How to use resources 2. Interpersonal skills 3. How to acquire/evaluate info (onus on nurses to be progressive & self directed) 4. Understanding systems & technology (most difficult for aging) 5. Basic skills. Thinking skills, & personal qualities Strategies for Nurse Retention 1. Quality of work life 2. Decreased violence (ensure plan/support) 3. Appropriate workloads & utilization 4. Continuing education (make sure to ask at interview) 5. Substitution (New roles like NP & IPHE) Non-traditional Patterns of Career Development 1. Women and minorities (more movement in & out of jobs) 2. Socioeconomic conditions (more layoffs) 3. Occupational choice (don’t want to stay in 1 place/interests change) 4. Career self-efficacy (want challenges) Why We Choose Our Work 1. Knowledge of options (25,000 jobs young people not exposed to) 2. Market conditions (HP, engineering, trades,  physical, labour) 3. Family attitudes, traditions, expectations (is a perception of reduced aspiration for daughters) 4. Proximity factors (has been improved by online/distance ed.) 5. Social class (lower SES jobs with horizontal movement only, high SES= vertical/careers) 6. Gender roles Effectiveness of Choice 1. 2/3 had no career plan when started 1 job 2. ½ of pop in Atlantic Canada have no retirement plan 3. Major hopping of uni students (not working in jobs related to major 5 yrs after graduation) 4. Median duration of first job is less than 1 year 5. Stabilization in occupation in 20s due to financial or family obligations – not personal satisfaction (unable to change jobs) 6. Majority wish they had chosen another career Levinson’s View on Male Career Development 1. Novice phase (enter the work world) 2. Formation of the dream (the vision of the kind of life you want, e.g. to be at top of co.) 3. Mentorship (find someone to emulate in career, women do not normally have one) 4. Formation of intimate relationships (find life partner, who shares the dream, reinforces confidence) *women are more relational in combining work and family and often sacrifice their own goals in relationships (80% of household duties) Women’s Career Paths 1. More women in work force than men 2. Close to 2/3 of all married couples are DI families 3. Women often motivated to work for: - Economic reasons - Relieving tedium of home life - Self fulfillment 4. Gender socialization has led many away from highest levels of occupational achievement 5. Discontinuous complex work histories ** Many women are not candidates for higher management because they don’t believe they can sacrifice family. Discrimination of Women in Work Force 1. Primary career path or mommy track (women who combine work & family are less worthy of advancement. Most at the top do not have children/unmarried) 2. Glass ceiling effect (as far as you can contribute in your work position) 3. Significant wage gaps 4. Occupational segregation (concentrated in positions that are typically female- low pay) 5. Feminization of poverty (women 7x more likely to be below poverty line in old age) 6. Physical and psychological impact of multiple roles (stimulation) *having multiple roles can either be stimulating or detrimental depending on the support structure Multiple Role Perspectives 1. Role enhancement/role expansion perspective - Multiple roles are advantageous to the individual, the more identities, the better the mental health 2. Role strain perspective - The greater the roles the more strain, and negative effects (mental/physical health) 3. Role context perspective - Considers the quality of and interaction among the individual roles, and the persons subjective assessment of them - Experience in a role can either increase/decrease distress - Depends on emotional support, shared values, confidence Retirement: A Major Developmental Task 1. A New Life Stage That Emerged in the 20th Century 2. Research on Retirement Has Many Inconsistencies 3. A Process That Spans a Period of Time 4. Pre-Retirement, Honeymoon, Disenchantment, Reorientation, Routine and Termination 5. Second Careers or Bridge Jobs Stages of Retirement 1. Pre-retirement – prep to retire 2. Honeymoon- euphoric freedom 3. Disenchantment- novelty wears off and problems appear 4. Reorientation- readjust, find new interest to get a satisfying routine 5. Routine 6. Termination- ends with death, disability or return to work *many OR nurses called out of retirement Adaptations to Retirement 1. Crisis theory of retirement adaption -traditional view that retirement is bad (for health/mental) 2. Continuity theory of retirement adaption -viewed as an event with minimal long term effects. There are opportunities for satisfaction 3. Mediated by: - Health - Income - Supportive relations - Meaningful activities 4. Human wealth plan - Based on the assumption that how we live later in life is directly affected by what we do earlier in life. - Accumulation: entering the workforce later means you have a shorter accumulatio
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