Lecture 2: Introduction to Theories of Teaching and Learning &
Relevance of Characteristics of the Learner
Health Education is the Key to Health
It requires forethought and planning so as not to confuse the patient
The change from teaching information to facilitating client centered learning takes time,
thought and reflection
Guideline Development Process
Three clinical questions:
1. How can nurses effectively facilitate client centered learning?
2. What are effective teaching delivery methods/strategies for client centered learning?
3. How do nurses assess client learning?
Teachers are not born; it is a skill, with a sound knowledge base
If we teach the way we were taught it may or may not be a good thing,
If we do so blindly we would not know if we are effective or how to revise our plan
Learning Theory: A coherent framework of integrated constructs and principles that describe,
explain, or predict how people learn.
3. Humanistic 1. Behaviorist Theory: chapter 3, Bastable
Concepts: stimulus conditions, reinforcement, response, drive (motivation)
To change behavior, change the stimulus conditions in the environment and the reinforcement after a
1. Motivation: behaviors to be reduced or incentives (the need to reduce some drive- desire for
food, security recognition or money. Satisfied people may have little motivation to change)
2. Educator: active role; manipulates environmental stimuli and reinforcements to direct change
3. Transfer: practice and provide similarity in stimulus conditions and responses with a new
Respondent Conditioning: CR/ extinguishing behaviors- weaken relationships with no CR
Learning occurs as a person responds to stimulus conditions in the environment & forms associations
A Neutral Stimulus (NS) is paired with an Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) and Unconditioned
Response (UCR) connection until the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits the
conditioned response (essentially the CS (stimulus) becomes associated with the CR- response)
Spontaneous recovery: when an ‗extinguished‘ behavior reappears, explains smoking/alcoholism
Operant Conditioning: behavior of a person and reinforcement after a response
Learning occurs as a person responds to stimuli in the environment and is reinforced for making a
A reinforcer is applied after a response strengthens the probability that the response will be performed
again under similar conditions.
Changing Behavior Using Operant Conditioning
To increase behavior: reinforcement strengthens learner responses they are repeated
positive reinforcement: increases the probability of behavior through reward (smiling, tokens-
tangible should be gradually replaced with praise)
negative reinforcement (escape or avoidance conditioning): increases the probability of behavior
through removing aversive consequence (restore privileges when client performs desired
To decrease behavior:
punishment: decreases behavior by presenting a negative consequence or removing a positive
one (time outs, denial of privileges)
Ignoring (extinction):decreases behavior by not reinforcing it (not paying attention to tantrums)
Schedules: continuous, fixed and variable (most effective)
Implementing: establish baseline of behavior, define problem, validate problem with client (the client
does not attend unit activities), reframe with a solution statement (the client will attend all scheduled unit
activities). Make a learning contract (with behavioral changes to occur, conditions which they occur,
reinforcement schedule and time frame) 2. Cognitive Theory
Goal: focuses on what is inside the learner (perception, thought, memory, ways of processing
information. To change behavior, must change perceptions/thoughts and form new insight. Work
with the developmental stage and change cognitions, goals, expectations, equilibrium, and ways
of processing information.
Reward is not necessary.
Learning is affected by past experiences, perceptions, etc.
Concepts: cognition, gestalt, perception, developmental stage, information-processing, memory,
social cognition (effects of social factors on perception), attributions
1. Motivation: goals, expectations, disequilibrium, cultural and group values
2. Educator: organize experiences and make them meaningful; encourage insight and
reorganization within learner
3. Transfer: focus on internal processes and provide common patterns with a new situation.
Similarities on the initial learning situation and subsequent situations aid memory and the
ability to transfer information from one situation to another (if you are anxious during
class, be anxious during exam).
Information-Processing Perspective: the way info is stored, approached, and memory
The way individuals perceive, process, store, and retrieve information from experiences
determines how learning occurs and what is learned.
Organizing information and making it meaningful aids the attention and storage process;
learning occurs through guidance, feedback, and assessing and correcting errors.
Gestalt Perspective: emphasizes perception in learning
Each learner perceiving, interpreting, and reorganizing experiences in her/his own way
Perception is selective- pay attention to certain features of an experience, and some of what
they pay attention to or ignore is based on past experience, needs, motives and attitudes
Learning occurs through the reorganization of elements to form new insights and
Cognitive Development Perspective: focus on advancement in thought and reasoning w age
Learning depends on the stage of cognitive functioning, with qualitative, sequential changes
in perception, language, and thought occurring as children and adults interact with the
Recognize the developmental stage and provide appropriate experiences to encourage
discovery. 3. Humanistic Theory: all are unique and want to grow in a positive way
Learning occurs on the basis of a person‘s motivation, derived from needs, the desire to grow
in positive ways, self-concept, and subjective feelings.
Learning is facilitated by caring facilitators and a nurturing environment that encourages
learning is open, spontaneous, recognizes emotions/feelings, respects the right of an
individual to make their own choices and appreciates creativity within the person.
Feelings and emotions are keys to learning, communication and understanding
Tell me how you feel, not tell me what you think.
Research has not well supported this theory, as people can be creative, but not have basic
1. Motivation: stems from everyone‘s needs, feelings of self, and desire to grow in positive
2. Educator: act as facilitator who respects learner‘s uniqueness and provides freedom to
feel, express, and grow creatively (role of a teacher is facilitator)
3. Transfer: positive or negative feelings and choices as well as freedom to learn, promote,
or inhibit transfer. Transfer of learning is encouraged by curiosity and a positive self
concept, and having open situations where people respect individiuality/freedom of
choice. Generalizations about Learning
Learning is a function of developmental changes
Brain processing is different for each learner
Learning is active, multifaceted and complex
Stress can interfere with or stimulate learning
How to promote change
Relate to what learner knows and is familiar with
Keep experiences simple, organiz