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L4 developing a teaching plan.rtf

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NURS 2000
Adele Vukic

Developing a Teaching Plan Basic Elements of a Teaching Plan: a. Purpose (Sometimes purpose and goal similar) b. Goal statement c. Objectives (S.M.A.R.T.) d. Content outline e. Methods of teaching (materials help) f. Time allotment g. Resources for instruction h. Evaluation (both performance and effectiveness) Definition of Terms Goals: the final outcome of what is achieved at the end of the teaching–learning process. Generate it with what the client needs to achieve as a result of the teaching. Examples: 1. After health teaching, the client will maintain dietary control of her diabetes. 2. After health teaching, the client will develop an appropriate diet plan for 1 week. (intrim goal) Objective: a behavior describing the performance that learners should be able to exhibit to be considered competent  Each objective should have an immediate action step that the client can take to get desired outcomes  Should be modest and achievable in time frame allotted.  To determine if it is achievable, consider the clients level of experience, education, resources, motivation  Should support the overall health outcome (goal) and relate directly to the nursing dx Example: Nursing DX: Knowledge deficit r/t diabetic diet Objective: 1. First teaching session: the client will identify the purpose of a diabetic diet and appropriate foods. 2. Second teaching session: the client will identify appropriate foods and serving sizes allowed on a diabetic diet. 3. Client will identify foods to avoid on the diabetic diet and the rationale for compliance. Differences between Goals and Objectives Goals Objectives Global Specific Broad Singular Long term Short term Multidimentional Unidimensional Responsibility for Establishing Goals and Objectives: o Goals and objectives mutual decision-making process between the teacher and the learner. o Both parties participate in establishing predetermined goals and objectives prior to initiating the teaching/learning process. o Blending the what learner’s wants and what the teacher assessed provides for a mutually accountable, respectful, and fulfilling educational experience. Guidelines for developing effective goals and objectives: p 324 1. Link goals to the nursing dx 2. Make goals action oriented 3. Make goals specific and measurable 5. Design objectives with a specific time frame 6. Show logical progression with established priorities 7. Review periodically and modify goal as needed The Debate about Using Behavioral Objectives: Arguments Against: o superfluous o reductionistic o time-consuming o pedagogic o stifles creativity o interferes with freedom to learn o impossible to be inclusive Arguments for: o keeps teaching learner-centered o communicates plan to others o helps learners stay on track o organizes educational approach o ensures that process is deliberate o tailors teaching to learner’s needs o focuses attention on learner o orients teacher and learner to outcomes Developing Objectives The 4 StepApproach: To link a behavioral objective together, the following three steps are recommended: 1. Identify the testing situation (condition). 2. State the learner and the learner’s behavior (performance). 3. State the performance level (criterion). 4. State how well the learner will perform the criterion. TheABCD Rule A—Audience B—Behavior C—Condition (under what circumstances) D—Degree (how much, to what extent) Writing SMART Objectives S—Specific M—Measurable A—Achievable R—Realistic T—Timely Timing:  Pick times when energy levels is the highest, client is not distracted or in pain, no visitors.  Limit information to 2-3 points at a time (because of ability to absorb information)  Keep teaching session short, interesting and to the point.  Should not be longer than 20 minutes (including time for questions)  Simple, spontaneous health teaching can take minutes—but is highly effective. Ex. On pg 326 with the angiography Common Mistakes When Writing Objectives o describing what the instructor will do rather than what the learner will do o including more than one behavior in a single objective o forgetting to include all three characteristics o using performance terms subject to many interpretations and that are not action-oriented o writing an unattainable, unrealistic objective o writing objectives unrelated to stated goal o cluttering an objective with unnecessary information o making an objective too general so that the outcome is not clear Taxonomy of Objectives: Behavior is defined according to type (domain category) and level of complexity (simple to complex). Three Types of Learning Domains: ** Domains are interrelated 1. Cognitive—the “thinking” domain for understanding content 2. Affective—the “feeling” domain for changing attitudes and promoting acceptance 3. Psychomotor—the “skills” domain for hands on skills development Complexity of Domain Levels Objectives in each domain are classified in a taxonomic form of hierarchy into low (most simple), medium (moderately difficult), and high (most complex) levels of behavior. Cognitive Levels: knowledge →evaluation Affective Levels: receiving → characterization Psychomotor: Perception → origination Teaching in the Cognitive Domain: is the focus when the client has a knowledge deficit o Learning in this domain involves acquisition of information based on the learner’s intellectual abilities and thinking processes. o Methods most often used to stimulate learning in the cognitive domain include: - lecture - one-to-one instruction - computer-assisted instruction o Cognitive-domain learning is the traditional focus of most teaching. o Cognitive knowledge is an essential prerequisite for learning affective and psychomotor skills.  Provide concrete explicit information verbally, in writing, and/or with pictures to explain desired outcome and steps to achieve it.  Example: objectives for a client with a recent DX of diabetes would include understanding the disease, role of diet, exercise, insulin in control, and trouble signs that would require immediate attention. Learning outcomes: having a basic understanding of disease process and treatment protocols, and being able to apply new info to meet health needs.  Example: informed consent and related info Teaching in theAffective Domain: Essential when client has issues that interfere with compliance or has reservations about tx/ sel
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