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NURS 2090 (20)


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NURS 2090
Heather Helpard

Infection Infection: A state of tissue destruction resulting from invasion of microorganisms Communicable: transferred from one person to another Microbiology recap: 1.Contact Transmission: is the spread of pathogens from one host to another by direct contact (touching), indirect contact (thru fomites, which are inanimate objects that transfer pathogen), and respiratory droplets (less than 1 meter is contact transmission, more than 1 meter is airborne transmission = vehicle transmission) 2. Vehicle Transmission: is the spread of pathogens via airborne transmission (more than 1 meter travelled via aerosol, cloud of droplets), waterborne transmission, and foodborne transmission as well as bodily fluid transmission being handled outside the body. 3. Vector Transmission: are animals that transmit diseases from one host to another. 1. Biological vectors (which not only transmit pathogens but also serve as hosts) 2. Mechanical vectors (which do not serve as hosts but as simple transportation to new hosts, on their feet or other body parts). Non-communicable: Caused by genetics/environment Bacteria: Can survive without the host, aerobic/anaerobic (survives best in deep tissue, makes it harder to treat). Cocci (sphere), bacilli (rods) -nucleus does not have a CM, not separate from cytoplasm - rigid cell wall Gram positive = Release exotoxins (exo = outside, result in host cell dysfunction/lysis) Gram negative = Release toxins in the cell (endo = inside, the LPS) Pyogenic bacteria- fever inducing Virus: Can’t survive without the host (obligate) - If viral infection sparks an strong immune response, it can lead to neutralization of the virus and control the infection. Infection will cease after a definite period. - If not strong enough, can lead to chronic infection Fungi: have a nuclear membrane. Unicellular= yeasts, Multicellular= molds, replicate by budding - are common resident microbes, which are also opportunistic. Mycoses/ Mycotic: refer to infections with fungi Chain of Infection 1. Infectious Agent/ Pathogen 2. Reservoir- need antimicrobials to break the chain 3. Portal of Exit- wear mask, cover mouth 4. Means of transmission- direct, droplet, airborne, vector 5. Portal of Entry- cover and protect entry points (gloves, condoms) 6. Susceptible Host Types of Infection: 1. Acute 2. Chronic Pathogenicity: qualities that promote production of the disease. Includes: potency, invasiveness, ability to evade immune system, spread of disease, production of toxins, tissue damage it elicits Virulence: the potency of the pathogen, which is indicated by the ratio of the number of cases of disease in a population compared to the number of people exposed. (Most virulent= causes disease in most of those exposed). Infectivity: proportion of exposures needed to cause infection. (Most infective= exposure= infection) Toxigenicity: ability of pathogen to produce toxins that cause tissue damange Antigenicity: level to which a pathogen is see as foreign. Elicits immune response Antigenic variability: eluding detection by altering antigens present (responsible for variation of diseases) Facultative parasite: may live on a host, but can survive independently. Bacteraemia: when septicemia is caused by bacteria. Maceration: a softening and breakdown of tissues, often related to excessive moisture Phases of Acute Infection 1. Exposure- any contact to pathogen 2. Incubation- once infected, but don’t realize you are sick (most contagious) 3. Prodrome- feeling of under the weather 4. Clinical illness- signs + symptoms, leads to diagnosis 5. Convalescence- return to normal. Complications of Infection 1. Septicemia- Widespread infection that enters the bloodstream - causes increased blood flow, increased vasodilation, increased capilliary permeability. Eventually blood flow slows down, organs shut down, fever and low BP Treatment: IV therapy to correct the fluid distribution, antibiotics, oxygen to correct hypoxia. Draw blood to get an indication of cause 2. Chronic Infection- Immune response is always going on Manifestations of Infection  Local:  heat  incapacitation- affects the fx  pain  edema  redness  lymphadenitis- inflamed lymph nodes  purulent exudates- can use charcoal dressings to help with odor  Systemic:  fever
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