NURS 2090 Lecture Notes - Hematocrit, Clinical Urine Tests, Lipase

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
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Lab Value Interpretation
**don’t memorize ranges, they will be given
**1 blood test does not equal a diagnosis!!
Complete Blood Count (CBC): Total cell count in a person’s blood
1. WBC: 4,000-10,000/ mm3
2. RBC: 4.2- 5.9 million/ mm3
This value represents the TOTAL RBC count
↓ values expected with: hemorrhage, anemia (which also indicates low 02
perfusion to cells)
**When RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit are low = hemorrhage.
3. Hemoglobin: Males 14-18g/ dL; Females 12-16 g/dL
Will never see elevated levels, but is of concern when low
Be careful with low values b/c this could be misleading. Patient may not be
breathing, but if you look at the pulse ox, it could give you a reading of 100% b/c
the hemoglobin is full of O2
4. Hematocrit: Males 40-54%; Females: 37-47%
5. MCV: 86-98 µm3/cell
6. MCH: 27-32 µµg/ RBC
↓ values expected with dehydration and high altitudes
7. RDW: Red cell distribution width- 11.5- 14.5
8. Platelet Count: 150,000-400,000 mm3
Platelets are located in the bone marrow and the liver. If you have a major trauma
to the liver/cirrhosis you will see ↓ platelets
↓ platelets = hemorrhage, bleeding, bruising
↑ platelets = clotting, DVT, autoimmune
9. WBC Differential: ↑ value = infection/ blood cancer; ↓ value= chemo/ HIV (isolate pt)
Neutrophils: 40-75%
Are the first responders to infection (bacterial, some viral, inflammation)
Lymphocytes: 15-45%
If the value is higher than neutrophils it may indicate B/T cells problems
Viral infection/ leukemia
Monocytes: 1-10%
Bacterial infections (TB, malaria)
Eosinophils: 1-6%
Parasites/ allergic response/ asthma
Basophils: 0-2%
Bone marrow/ leukemia/ lymphoma
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Glycemic Index: ranks carbs on a scale of 0-100 (rates based on how the affect blood sugar)
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1-55 = low Glycemic Index (wont make the blood sugar rise too quickly)
55-69 = medium
70-100 = high
** Any time you add fat or acid to a food, you will lower the glycemic index. That is why a
cookie has lower GI than oatmeal. It will be absorbed much slower.
Glycemic load: blood sugar raising POWER.
Formula: Glycemic Index x g of carbs
100
This will give you a score from 0- 20+. A GI of less than 120 per day is what you are aiming for.
Less than 10 = low
11-19 = medium
20 + = high
Urinalysis (including normal ranges)
1. pH : 5- 6.5, Is no normal pH expected; however, would want to see it after prostate
surgery to kill bacteria (recommends to drink cranberry juice for acidity and OJ for a
more alkaline urine)
2. Specific gravity : 1.016- 1.022, Shows how concentrated the urine is
3. WBC : 0-5
4. RBC : 0-5, Seeing this in urine would indicate some sort of trauma
5. Ketones : Negative, we don’t want to see ketones, that indicates DKA, muscle break down
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