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Introduction to Chronic Illness.rtf

16 Pages

Course Code
NURS 2280
Shauna Houk

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Introduction to Chronic Illness True or False  Emphasizing and complying with healthy lifestyles early in life can slow the development of chronic illness. TRUE  The hospital is the core center of care in chronic conditions. FALSE  While different impairments may result from different disabilities, there are similarities across disabilities.TRUE  People with disabilities seek medical intervention/health care in order to maintain a high level of wellness.FALSE  Many people with chronic illnesses report that treatment options and the pros/cons are not discussed with them by their physicians. TRUE Lecture objectives o Define chronic illness and chronicity o Identify factors relating to increased incidence of chronic conditions o Discuss prevalence of chronic health problems in Canada o Explore concepts related to coping with chronic illness o Discuss how health care professionals can facilitate coping with chronic illness using primary health care principles o Identify coping challenges of chronically ill adults Chronic Conditions o Occur in people of every age, socioeconomic level, and culture o Conditions that do not resolve or for which complete cures are rare o The patient must adapt and change physically, socially, and emotionally o Usually involve different phases during the person’s lifetime to which the person must adapt Background Chronic Illness o Most people in developed nations die from chronic illness o Chronic illness brings people to doctors, clinics, hospitals o Chronic illness management accomplished largely by client & family at home o Incidence increasing in Canada o Rural/urban discrepancies (rural less healthy, greater disability) Characteristics of Chronic Conditions o Affects emotional, psychological and social wellbeing of patient o Require adherence to therapeutic regimen o One chronic disease or problem can lead to another o Chronic disorders contribute to higher risk of mortality and morbidity from other illnesses o Affect the entire family o Management primarily falls to pt & family o Some degree of disability in severe or advanced CI o Limit’s patients participation in activities & eroding QOL o Many require therapeutic regimes to keep them under control o Long disease course and conditions may be incurable o Many phases (stable-unstable periods) o Adherence poses challenges o Knowledge transfer and learning to manage o Day-to-day management is the responsibility of the person or his or her family and is unique o Learning to manage chronic conditions involves trial and error o Many have pain & fatigue as symptoms o Management is collaborative and expensive o Ethical issues may be raised; for example, cost and QOL o Living with chronic illness means living with uncertainty Definition of Chronicity o Associated with symptoms or disabilities that require long-term management (3 months or longer) (Brunner & Suddarth) o “irreversible presence, accumulation, or latency of disease states or impairments that involve the total human environment for supportive care and self-care, maintenance of function, & prevention of further disability (Curtin & Lubkin, 1995, p. 5; In Larsen & Lubkin, 2009) Prevalence of Chronic Disease in Canada o 16 million Canadians live with at least once chronic disease (34.2 mill pop.) o 89% of all deaths in Canada are from a chronic disease o WHO projects that over the next 10 years in Canada:  Deaths from chronic diseases will increase by 15%  Deaths from diabetes will increase by 44%. Why is there such a high incidence of chronic disease? o Decrease in mortality for infectious diseases o Survival of extremely low birth weight infants o Improved diagnostic and screening procedures o Improved management of acute conditions o Chronic illness is more likely to develop with advanced age o Lifestyle factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity Major Chronic Disease in Canada (Exam Question!) o Cardiovascular disease o Cancers o COPD o Diabetes Mellitus These are the major causes of premature death and hospitalization Leading Causes of Canadian Deaths Impact of Chronic Disease in NS o Chronic diseases account for almost 75% of deaths in NS -5800 individuals o The same 4 causes Chronic Disease Facts o NS has the highest rate of asthma in the country o The prevalence of diabetes in NS increased b/t 1994/95 and 2007 from 3.6% to 6.8% o High blood pressure prevalence increased in Canada and NS and the incidence has consistently been higher in NS than the CanadianAverage o Cancer rates have increased significantly b/t 1976-2006 (39% for men & 24% for women). Cancer rates in NS are higher than the Canadian average **GPI – Genuine Progress Index Common Health Risk Factors in NS o 28.8% of Nova Scotians use tobbaco products o 55.1% self reported < 15 min moderate exercise per day o
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