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PHIL 4120 Lecture Notes - Ordinary Language Philosophy, Soap Bubble, Analytic Philosophy

Course Code
PHIL 4120
Duncan Macintosh

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Monday, January 24, 2011
Essays: No outside readings; 5 pages; explain then criticize; “Here’s the problem we’re
concerned with” – explain the author’s position; show how they show it; show what you
want to talk about by way of what they did
½ of the paper should be the argument you’re tearing apart.
3 Ways to attack a philosophical position: Is the argument valid (agree with the premise,
agree with the conclusion)? – point out counterarguments. Do we have reasons to
believe/evaluate premises/are the assumptions reasonable (Points out falsity, but not
reasons to be true)? Argument is valid/ no flaw with the premises – does that mean the
conclusion is plausible (you then know a premise is false/argument is invalid/there needs
to be something added to the conclusion)?
Style – no big fancy words, jokes, profanity, etc. Write like you’re trying to explain to a
retard (small words, sentences, etc.). Avoid repetition. One idea per sentence. First
person – “I think…”
No general introductions. Good intro: Royce believes that …
Show why ambiguous terms are ambiguous
Footnotes – use on occasions when the reader would find your explanation controversial.
Avoid quotes AND explanation of quotes. If an idea came up in class, footnote it.
Ex. ________, “________.”12
G.E Moore – resisting idealism/skepticism
Invented common sense philosophy and ordinary language philosophy; analytical
Proof of an External World
Told it was not proven the external world exists. Kant: What is an experience? There
needs to be a subject, and something other than me for me to experience. The object of
experience causes you to have an experience. Mere fact that you have an experience
proves the existence of time. Ex. Horse race
Could have the recollection of a horse race; and you came into existence in the
last second
What does it mean to say the external world exists?
There appears to be something different than you, a world of things presented in
space (ex. The table is 3 feet away from you)
The objects of experience are presented as they existed in space. No – there are all
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