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PHIL 4120 (9)

Gilbert Ryle

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PHIL 4120
Duncan Macintosh

Monday, February 28, 2011 Gilbert Ryle Influenced by Austen, Wittgenstein Systematically misleading expressions: “Duncan is teaching.” “Red is a colour” – object/thing red and has the property of being a colour (“What is red?) “Sherlock Holmes smokes a pipe” – But Sherlock Holmes doesn’t exist, but does smoke a pope “God exists”/”God does not exist” – logically impossible to deny the existence of God “Satan does not exist” “The average family has 2.3 children” Subject/predicate sentences – says something about the object One part understands a part of the world, other ascribes a description to it Misled to the grammatical structure of a sentence “Red is a colour” = “Anything red is coloured” Don’t presuppose the existence of things we don’t need to presuppose Mislead an incautious philosopher in the subject term for the sentence to be true or false Duncan is teaching – (Descriptive Theory of Proper Names) Ontological Argument: God – that thing which exists by virtue of its perfection, all-knowing, all-powerful, etc. The denial of God’s existence is a contradiction Problem: Could be used to prove the perfect anything – ex. Perfect boyfriend, hamburger Any argument form that can be used to prove false arguments has to be a bad argument Anselm made the mistake of being circular. In defining God, he thought he could sue the word exists. Defining “God” = defining “God exists” God exists only if something is: all-knowing, all-powerful, all-good, exists Cannot define “God exists” with blahblahblah exists. Cannot be one of the words used to describe. Exists does not play the role of predicate. Exists is not an activity for someone to engage in, not the name for property or activity for. Plays a role like ‘is’ – not the is of existence, but the ‘is’ of predication Redness is a colour – is there a way of saying it without presupposes redness? (anything red is coloured) – stop treating it as a noun – physical objects are the only nouns. Punctuality is not a thing – but a trait o
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