Inventor of ordinary language philosophy; believed philosophers were ineffective in using the language because of culture. How we talk/use terms is the starting point for philosophy. Real vs. not real we take ourselves to know thing from extrapolating from evidence/symptoms. Overall thing: in analyzing terms, philosophers had made a descriptivist fallacy attempt to describe something in the world, when people use words (knowledge, belief, truth), isn"t descriptivist at all. I am justified in believing the sky is blue (i. e. i have evidence) Other things you can do with the words (ask a question, make a demand, declare, insult, promise, commitments not descriptions). Speech-act theory actions you can perform with speech while speaking/writing. Two categories: categories with descriptions, and everything else. Distinction between three things: locutionary (what it says), illocutionary force of an utterance (what you do in saying this thing i. e. asking a question is the window open you"re committing an interrogative act.