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POLI 3311 (5)

Development Theory and African Industrialization

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Political Science
POLI 3311
Peter Arthur

Development Theory and African Industrialization The Development Project in Theory and Practice: A Review of its Shifting Dynamics - idea of development was invented in the 1940s as part of a geopolitical project to liberate countries freed from colonialism away from communism - drawn out by capitalist democracies of Western Europe and North America - development was conceived in conditional terms as relative progress in per capita economic growth and in structural terms as industrialization and modernization - Development entails: - an increase in the rate of savings and investment - the accumulation of physical and financial capital - investment of this capital in industry - in the absence of weakness of an endogenous capitalist class, the state assumes the basic functions of capital - investment, entrepreneurship and management - nationalization of economic enterprises in strategic industries and sectors - an inward orientation of production, which, together with a secular increase in wages and salaries, will expand the domestic market - regulation of this and other markets and the protection of the firms that produce the market, insulating them from the pressures of the world economy - modernization of the production apparatus, the state and social institutions, reorienting them towards values and norms that are functional for economic growth - This approach assumed that economic growth would be accompanied by the adoption of Western cultural and institutional practices The 1970’s - approaches to development identifiable today emerged - Left believed in radical, systemic change. Marxism/Latin American structuralism to create “dependency theory” - Development/underdevelopment as two sides of the same coin - socioeconomic conditions were linked to the position that a country happened to occupy in the world capitalist system - Development in the metropole was predicated on the underdevelopment of countries on the periphery - “the development of underdevelopment” (Frank 1967) - Reformists: relations of dependency are neither inherently exploitative nor block the possibility of periphery capitalist development; they just create a situation that favours a dependent or distorted pattern of capitalist development - Right criticized state-centered solutions to developmental problems and began to argue for global free trade as the engine for economic growth - Development would only address the problems of the poor when it involved the poor, i.e. local community organizations - Mainstream development program became liberal reformist (enhanced role of the state): - programs that would establish the social conditions of development (education, health, etc) - poverty-oriented strategy designed to meet the basic needs of the poor, based on; - reforms designed to improve access to society’s productive resources (land reform, etc.) - redistributive ‘growth with equity’ policies via taxation designed to redistribute more equitably market-generated incomes - an integrated program of rural development that corrected for the urban bias of government policies as well as the neglect of agriculture 1970’s - “Growth With Equity” model advanced in the context of an extensive/ongoing debate on the role of inequality in the growth and development process and the relevant policy option priorities and tradeoffs (i.e. growth with efficiency, equity or equality) ______________________________________________________________________ Three Established Theories of Development: - Modernization Theory 1940s-1970s - Bretton Woods Conference (1944) - diff. trade agreements between developed countries - Western democracies attempted to lure liberated African countries away from the spread of communism - Proposes that with the introduction of industrialization and modernization, Western values would be adopted - Dependency Theory 1970s-1980s - Framed by Latin American theorist Fernando Cardoso - Worldwide economic production crisis led to t
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