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Lecture 5

Unit 1 - Lecture 5 - The Nervous System.docx

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PSYO 1011

PSYO 1011 The Nervous System 1 Lecture 5: The Nervous System September 24, 2009 Types of Neurons: • Sensory Neurons o Carry information from sensory organs to spinal cord/brain o Quite different structurally from other neurons • Interneurons o Exist within spinal cord/brain o Carry messages from neuron to neuron o Most numerous • Motor Neurons o Carry information from spinal cord/brain  muscles/glands The Nervous System: • Several interrelated subsystems • 2 Major Divisions o Central Nervous System (CNS)  Brain & spinal cord  Integrates & coordinates information o Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  Nerves to/from CNS • All neurons that connect CNS to muscles, glands & sensory receptors  Carries info to (sensory)/from (motor) CNS The Peripheral Nervous System: • Cranial Nerves o 12 pairs o Protrude directly from brain • Spinal Nerves o 31 pairs o Protrude directly from spinal cord • Bilateral • Contain axons from sensory & motor neurons • Note o Collection of axons in PNS = Nerve o Collection of axons in CNS = Tract The Peripheral Nervous System- 2 Divisions: • Somatic Nervous System o Allows you to sense/respond to your environment o Sensory nerves from eyes, ears, etc. o Motor nerves to skeletal muscle o Voluntary movements • Autonomic Nervous System PSYO 1011 The Nervous System 2 o Acts on visceral muscle & glands o Involved in involuntary functions o 2 branches  Sympathetic & Parasympathetic o Basic physiological functions The Autonomic Nervous System: • Sympathetic o Fight or flight response o Prepares body to deal with stress  Activation or arousal function  Adrenaline • Parasympathetic o Rest & digest o Slows down body processes & maintains a state of tranquility The Spinal Cord: • Connects most of PNS with the brain & the brain itself • Contains ascending (somatosensory) & descending (motor) tracts • Sensory nerves enter the dorsal spinal cord o Dorsal = back • Motor nerves exit via ventral spinal cord o Ventral = front (belly) • Organizes some reflexes o Spinal reflexes  Can be triggered w/o involvement of brain  Reduces reaction time Unlocking the Secrets of the Brain: • Neuropsychological Tests o Can correlate with brain damage o Measure verbal & non-verbal behaviours • Destruction (Lesion) & Stimulation o Usually done in animals o Physically remove & study the brain or stimulate certain areas of the brain via electric current • Electrical Recording o Record brain activity o Single neurons via electrophysiology o Whole brain via EEG • Brain Imaging o CT to study brain structure o PET to measure brain activity (function) o fMRI for structure & function PSYO 1011 The Nervous System 3 The Hierarchical Brain- Structures & Behaviour
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