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Lecture 7

Unit 1 - Lecture 7 - Genetics of Behaviour.docx

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PSYO 1011

PSYO 1011 Genetics of Behavior 1 Lecture 7: Genetics of Behavior October 1, 2009 Jim Springer & Jim Lewis: • Identical twins separated at birth & raised by different parents o Met for the first time when 39 • Although raised by different families, had many things in common o Married twice with son named James o Smoked same brand of cigarettes & prefer Miller Lite beer o Part-time sheriffs & favored poodles as pets o Headaches under stress & bit fingernails • Found to be strikingly similar in personality traits upon psychological testing Nature & Nurture: • Study ways favorable/unfavorable environmental conditions affects genetically inherited potential of an organism o No longer nature vs. nurture, but both • Triangle analogy o Asking if behavior caused by genetic or environmental factors makes no more sense than asking if a triangle is formed by it sides or corners • Genes particularly important for some characteristics o i.e.) eye color • Other characteristics can be strongly influenced by environment o i.e.) weight Genetics Definitions: • Genotype o Specific genetic make-up • Phenotype o Observable characteristics produced by genotype • Genes o Segments of DNAthat code for production of specific proteins • Chromosomes o Tightly coiled DNApartly covered by protein  DNAportion holds genes’ o Human cells have 46  23 pairs  Exception of sex cells which have 23 chromosomes each • 2 sex cells from parents combine to form new cell with 46 chromosomes Gene  Organism: • Each chromosome contains numerous genes o One chromosome of every pair is from each parent o Each nucleus contains 46 chromosomes  23 pairs PSYO 1011 Genetics of Behavior 2 • Each human cell (except RBC) contains a nucleus • Human body contains 100 trillion cells Gene Effects: • Dominant Gene o Characteristic it controls will be displayed  Trump card  i.e.) Dark eye color • Recessive Gene o Controls characteristic in absence of dominant gene  Only shows up when both genes are recessive  i.e.) Blue eye color • Polygenic Transmission o Combined influence of pairs of genes  Genes combine influences to create a single phenotypic trait Gene Technologies: • Can we manipulate genes to see what they do? • Recombinant DNAProcedures o Enzymes cut DNAsequence into pieces o Combine with DNAof another organism  Insert into a host organism such as bacterium o DNAself-replicates o i.e.) Used to produce HGH • Virus-Mediated Gene Transfer o Gene packaged into a virus o Virus injected into brain area  i.e.) Insert genetic material to prevent neurons from responding to a particular neurotransmitter o Virus makes copies o Measure behavior & compare to control group  Helps to determine importance of neurotransmitters in relation to behaviors • Transgenic Mice o Multiple types o Gene is inserted into mouse DNA  i.e.) HumanAlzheimer’s genes o Gene is removed from/inactivated in mouse DNA  Knockout or knockdown • Particular function of gene eliminated  i.e.) Dopamine reuptake transporter knockdown- Decrease in dopamine r
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