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(ch. 2) Prominent approaches to the life-span perspective

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PSYO 2090

CHAPTER 2 So many ways to look at development (biological - genes etc, social - culture, gender) The first half of the 20th century, theorists presented views of child development Arnold Gesell: Biological - maturational - blueprint Stanley Hall: Child development followed a natural evolutionary course - Physical development Sigmund Freud: Emphasized biological influences, influence of social demands --- original sin - believed everyone was born into the world evil then offset by social development etc John Watson: Emphasized environment influences - blank slate James Baldwin: Cognitive development Genetic espitemology - change in children's knowledge Jean Piaget: extended Baldwin's ideas of cognitive development The scientific method Conceptualize the problem - develop an idea of why it may be occurring and then set up a process to test it Observe or identify patterns of behaviour - Develop theory Albert Einstein: "Science refines everyday thinking" - beyond just making up a reason/idea Methods -- objective, systematic (ex. everyone gets asked the same question), testable Movie (Kip Kinkel) 15 years old - also killed his parents What went wrong? Should have flourished - good home etc Lived in natural setting -- appears remote January 16th (lecture 4) Observations: i.e. identify and analyze a set of behaviour patterns Develop a theory: Theory - a set of ideas proposed to describe and explain certain phenomena and/or make predictions Test the theory using hypotheses: Hypothesis is an assumption that can be tested to determine its accuracy Collect data: observations, interview, case studies, standardized tests, questionnaires, life-history records, physiological measures, behavioural responses Drawing conclusion: Accept hypotheses - refine theory and retest it, reject (fail to accept) hypothesis - revise theory, develop a new theory Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold casually decided which of their classmates should live and which should die, and laughed triumphantly as they meted out fate But the most vexing puzzle, perhaps, is the motive. How did brainy kids from seemingly stable, affluent homes become killing machines without a hint of remorse? Some theories (developed in class): Personality disorder, they were bullied, exposed to violence in some way (but there would have to be something else) The tragedy's roots are most likely twisted ranging from the availability of guns, media violence, violent games to biology and possibly troubled family lives --- theory: brain functioning abnormality? Hypotheses: PET scans of brains of aggressive people will show abnormal frontal lobe activity Theory: media violence Hypotheses: Prolonged exposure to media violence is correlated to juvenile violence Springfield, Oregon: Armed with 3 guns, 15 year old Kiplan Kinkel Who is this kid? Why did he become this way? Video on Kipland Kinkel expected their children would excel - Kristen did but Kinkel was held back in first grade (mad because his friends got to go on and he didn't) Everyone else in the family was smart Dyslexia Kristen left for college and Kip was left behind Parents in mid 50s - huge generation gap Kristen was always a mediator and when she left there were problems Took self defence classes Thought he was a disappointment to his parents Started hanging out with the wrong crowd Kip and his new friends got in trouble at the mall - stole CDs His parents were upset and offered him a diversion - let him spend time online Visited Porn sites, printed and framed lyrics - no salvation, no forgiveness Became fascinated with explosives Ordered bomb making materials and had it sent to the school -- they got caught He and a group of friends ordered a book about building bombs Kid also liked guns - but parents said that no guns even if it was a toy - no violent toys (i.e. plastic soldiers) Found 2 bebe guns, parents gave him a knife Gathered an entire collected - then he wanted a real gone Got a gun for one of his birthdays -- still didn't agree with it - didn't know what else to do On field trip kip and a friend got arrested for tossing rocks over an overpass and a passing car was hit At the end of his rope trying to get this kid on the right path Took kip to a psychologists - became tearful when talking about his relationship with his father - expects the worst of him -- thinks he's a bad kid with bad habits, mother says he's a good kid with bad habits---- makes explosives from gasoline and sets them off to relieve his anger -- feels bored and irritable, wakes up tires and was diagnosed with extreme depression disorder - Father tried to talk to his son (even talked about guns) Bill = dad ---- wants to connect with his son so wants to buy him a certain gun (glock)? - decided to buy it -- Kip would not let up - wouldn't let it go -- Rules - would be locked up and kip could only fire it with his dad there --- things got better and he no longer needed the psychologists - Taken prozac for 3 months and then wanted to stop Got suspended from school for violence Doesn't succeed well in school Father was a great tennis player - Kip couldn't measure up Feels bad about himself so he hangs out with bad kids who don't set high expectations Theories Psychoanalytic Behavioural Cognitive Ethological Contextual Kips perspective of who he is:Always compered himself to his sister Social aspect: family, home - once sister left things got bad Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 Medical doctor Neurologist Trained in the physical sciences If you observe something you want to refine it and understand it University of Vienna 1873 Medical School graduate Specialized in nervous disorders Physical symptoms resulted from physical causes -- understanding of ecology can be reduced to chemical and physical forces Looked for the causation to be reduced to something physically wrong with the person that we can measure Nervous disorders due to neurological impairment Neuron theory - measure or physical oriented theory Some patients' disorder had no physical cause -- Anna O (colleague) -- Hysteria (had physiological symptoms but no physiological symptoms/reason) Theory Neuron theory could not explain phenomena Neurotics suffer from memories - so intense you want to forget it Memories can be unconscious Memories have a common core Unconscious forces influence behaviour Psychic determinism - psychological factors to be caused Hypnosis --> unconscious - free association --- psychoanalysis January 21st (Lecture 5) Main themes of Freud's personality theory Unconscious motivators "the mind is like an iceberg - mostly hidden" Below the surface (thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories) Conscious awareness - small part above the surface (preconscious) Repression: banishing unacceptable thoughts & passions to unconscious -- dreams and slips of the tongue - tap in to the unconscious 3 parts of the iceberg: Id, Ego, Super ego Id: basic needs - eating, sleeping, sex etc. Constantly striving to satisfy basic drives -- pleasure principle Ego: Seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways -- Reality principle Super ego: Voice of conscience that focuses on how we ought to behave "Personality arises from conflict between aggressive, pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints" *** think about this when writing about kip kinkel (assignment 2)**** Early experiences: formation of personality in early childhood Parents extensively shape child's development Need to recognize and overcome early irrational feelings about parents When the inner war gets out of hand, the result is anxiety Realistic anxiety: "real fear" - ego based Moral anxiety: "I shouldn't do this", shame and guilt -- Superego based Neurotic anxiety: Nervous anxiety. Overwhelmed by impulses from the id (KIP KINKEL) Ego protects itself via defence mechanisms Defence mechanisms: Reduce/redirect anxiety by distorting reality See owl for defines mechanisms -- Know for test -- USE 2 for Kip Kinkel Kip Kinkel movie (continued) Shoplifting, explosive, knives, guns Father expects the worst from him "Personality forms during the first few years of life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood" Nourishes how the ego develops Psychosexual stages: How do humans in general develop Oral stage: (0-18 months): Centered on the mouth Anal stage: (18-36 months): Focus on bowel/bladder elimination Phallic stage: (3-6 years): Focus on genitals -- pretty much determine who you are in this stage. Identification of gender identity Oedipus complex (boys) Electra complex (girls) Latency: (6-puberty) sexuality is dormant Genital: (puberty-death) - sexual feelings towards others Strong conflict can fixate an individual at stages 1, 2 or 3 Oral Stage (if stuck in this stage) Passive: smoking, thumb sucking, overeating Aggressive: Highly critical of others Anal stage (if stuck in this stage) Over controlling, hoarding (anal retentive) Sloppy, impulsive (anal expulsive) Phallic stage (if stuck in this stage) Unresolved conflict can leas to neurosis Neo-Freudians Agreed with certain aspects of psychoanalytic theory Places more emphasis on social environment Erik Erikson: ego psychology Erik Erikson Has 8 stages Sequence and timing of stages are genetically determined Resolving a crisis at each stage depends on how the person interacts with the environment (soci
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