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Middle-late childhood

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Dalhousie University
PSYO 2090

March 20 (Lecture 18) Mid-late Childhood (physical, cognitive, socio- emotional) Mid to late childhood Elementary school years Height - 2 to 3 inches a year Weight - 5 to 7 pounds a year Slow and consistent growth Lower portion of body grows faster Skeletal and muscle system grows as baby fat decreases (example of maturation) Girls have slightly more body fat Boys have more muscle, typically stronger After 8, girls accumulate fat at a faster rate Body growth and change The brain Brain volume stabilizes Significant changes in prefrontal cortex Improves attention, reasoning and cognitive control Increases in cortical thickness Activation of some brain areas increase while others decrease Due to synaptic pruning Motor skills Refinement of motor coordination Smoother and more coordinated Increased myelinization of central nervous system Boys better at gross motor skills Girls are better at fine motor skills Nutrition Average body weight doubles Need to consume more food (because children are very active) Balanced diet promotes growth Exercise Important role in development Only 37% of children between 4-11 are considered physically active (NOT GOOD) Obesity Television linked to low activity and obesity Increasing health problems Risk factor of being obese as an adult Exercise and sport (assignment 3 question 1) Recall progressive patterns of play Physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development PROS Exercise Opportunities to learn how to complete (solely depends on the coach) Self-esteem Setting for developing peer relations and friendships CONS Pressure to achieve and win Physical injuries Distraction from academic work Unrealistic expectations for success Assignment 3 question 1 Articles cannot be early than 2000 Highlight How to find research articles GOOGLE: Dalhousie library Go to research tools Field of study —> social sciences Detabase Go into psycINFO Click advanced search Click Linked full text “sports and children” —> look up hockey and coaching - (talk about brother) SEARCH Health, illness, and disease Middle and late childhood is usually a time of excellent health Injuries are the leading cause of death Motor vehicle accidents are most common cause of severe injury Cancer is 2nd leading cause of death in children 5-14 years old Most common is leukemia Children with disabilities? 10% of children receive services Mental retardation “intellectual disability” Learning disabilities Speech or language impairments Serious emotional disturbances Classifying mental retardation Operational definition (AAMR, 1992): Onset before 18 Below average intelligence (below 70 IQ) Severe impairment in 2 or more adaptive behaviours WPPSI (ages 3-8) preschool and primary WISC-III (ages 6-16) children WAIS-III (16+) adult Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K- ABC) (2-12) Adaptive behaviours Everyday behaviour that is used to engage with the immediate environment Communication Self-care Home living Social and interpersonal relationships Use of community resources Functional academic skills (work) Leisure Health Safety Vineland adaptive behaviour scales Adaptive behaviour scale School (ABS-S:2) Residential and community (ABS-RC:2) 3rd-person rating Adaptive behaviours and personal-social behaviours Classifying mental retardation The term mental retardation is too general Subcategorization based on severity of retardation DSM-IV Mild disability (50-55 to 70) Moderate (35-40 to 50-55) Severe (20-25 to 35-40) Profound (below 20-25) Mental retardation (severity unspecified) — Intelligence is not testable by standard tests Symptoms Failure to meet intellectual developmental markers Persistence of infantile behaviour Lack of curiosity Decreased learning ability Inability to meet educational demands of school Learning characteristics Severe limitations Functions at the sensorimotor stage Mildest limitations Functions within areas of concrete operational stage (where they should me but very low end) Persons with mental retardation learn at slower rate Mild approximately 40-70% slower than normal Severe limitations - may not be capable of traditional schooling Basic life skills Communication skills Mildest limitations - traditional schooling Self sufficient in personal hygiene Job training & work Learning disabilities IQ level ~ achievement level Discrepancy debate Learning disabilities include IQ level (normal range) Significant difficulty in a school-related area No other conditions such as emotional disorders, second-language background, sensory disabilities, neurological deficits Common types Dyslexia: reading disability Dysgraphia: writing disability Dyscalculia: math disability Reading requires an ability to recognize that spoken words can be segmented into smaller units of sound (phonological awareness) and that the petters int he printed word represent these sounds Dyslexia readers do not recognize these smaller sounds and have difficulty mapping alphabetic characters onto the spoken word Brain interprets messages inconsistently (visual and/or auditory) — March 27th Motivation A need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour Intrinsic motivation: desire to perform a behaviour for its own sake or to be effective Extrinsic motivation: Desire to perform a behaviour due to external rewards or punishment Chapter 14? Family Strong parental control during early childhood Beginning of autonomy: gradual transference of some power/control from parent to child Corregulation: Involves both parent and
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